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Iphone

The iPhone is an Internet-connected, multimedia smartphone designed and marketed by Apple Inc. Since its minimal hardware interface lacks a physical keyboard, the multi-touch screen renders a virtual keyboard when necessary. The iPhone functions as a camera phone (also including text messaging and visual voicemail), a portable media player (equivalent to a video iPod), and an Internet client (with email, web browsing, and Wi-Fi connectivity). The first-generation phone hardware was quad-band GSM with EDGE; the second generation added UMTS with HSDPA.[16]

Apple announced the iPhone on January 9, 2007,[17] after months of rumors and speculation.[18] The original iPhone was introduced in the United States on June 29, 2007 before being marketed worldwide. Time magazine named it the Invention of the Year in 2007.[19] Released July 11, 2008, the iPhone 3G supports faster 3G data speeds and assisted GPS.[16] On March 17, 2009, Apple announced version 3.0 of the iPhone OS operating system for the iPhone (and iPod Touch), released on June 17, 2009.[20] The iPhone 3GS was announced on June 8, 2009. It was released in the U.S., Canada and some European countries on June 19,[3] in Australia and Japan on June 26,[21] and will see international release in July and August.

Phone

When making a call, the iPhone presents a number of options. The screen is automatically disabled when held close to the face.

The iPhone allows audio conferencing, call holding, call merging, caller ID, and integration with other cellular network features and iPhone functions. For example, if a song is playing while a call is received, it gradually fades out, and fades back when the call has ended. The proximity sensor shuts off the screen and touch-sensitive circuitry when the iPhone is brought close to the face, both to save battery and prevent unintentional touches. This iPhone does not support video calling, and the first two models only supported voice dialing through third party applications.[89] Voice control, available only on the iPhone 3GS, allows users to say a contact's name or number and the iPhone will dial. [90]

The iPhone includes a visual voicemail (in some countries)[91] feature allowing users to view a list of current voicemail messages on-screen without having to call into their voicemail. Unlike most other systems, messages can be listened to and deleted in a non-chronological order by choosing any message from an on-screen list.

A music ringtone feature was introduced in the United States on September 5, 2007. Users can create custom ringtones from songs purchased from the iTunes Store for a small additional fee. The ringtones can be 3 to 30 seconds long from any part of a song, can fade in and out, pause from half a second to five seconds when looped, or loop continuously. All customizing can be done in iTunes,[92] or alternatively with Apple's GarageBand software 4.1.1 or later (available only on Mac OS X)[93] or third-party tools.[94]

 

Multimedia

The layout of the music library is similar to that of an iPod or current Symbian S60 phones. The iPhone can sort its media library by songs, artists, albums, videos, playlists, genres, composers, podcasts, audiobooks, and compilations. Options are always presented alphabetically, except in playlists, which retain their order from iTunes. The iPhone uses a large font that allows users plenty of room to touch their selection. Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape mode to access Cover Flow. Like on iTunes, this feature shows the different album covers in a scroll-through photo library. Scrolling is achieved by swiping a finger across the screen. Alternatively, headset controls can be used to pause, play, skip, and repeat tracks. Voice control, only on the iPhone 3GS, can also be used identify a track, play songs in a playlist of by a specific artist, and create a Genius playlist.[90]

The iPhone supports gapless playback.[95] Like the fifth generation iPods introduced in 2005, the iPhone can play digital video, allowing users to watch TV shows and movies in widescreen. Unlike other image-related content, video on the iPhone plays only in the landscape orientation, when the phone is turned sideways. Double-tapping switches between widescreen and fullscreen video playback.

The iPhone allows users to purchase and download songs from the iTunes Store directly to their iPhone. The feature originally required a Wi-Fi network, but now can use the cellular data network if one is not available.[96]

 

Internet connectivity

Wikipedia Main Page on iPhone's Safari in landscape mode

Internet access is available when the iPhone is connected to a local area Wi-Fi or a wide area GSM or EDGE network, both second-generation (2G) wireless data standards. The iPhone 3G also supports third-generation UMTS and HSDPA 3.6,[97] but not HSUPA networks, and only the iPhone 3GS supports HSDPA 7.2.[98] AT&T introduced 3G in July 2004,[99] but as late as 2007 Steve Jobs felt that it was still not widespread enough in the US, and the chipsets not energy efficient enough, to be included in the iPhone.[38][100] Support for 802.1X, an authentication system commonly used by university and corporate Wi-Fi networks, was added in the 2.0 version update.[101]

By default, the iPhone will ask to join newly discovered Wi-Fi networks and prompt for the password when required. Alternatively, it can join closed Wi-Fi networks manually.[102] The iPhone will automatically choose the strongest network, connecting to Wi-Fi instead of EDGE when it is available.[103] Similarly, the iPhone 3G prefers 3G to 2G, and Wi-Fi to either.[104] Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and 3G (on the iPhone 3G) can all be deactivated individually. Airplane Mode disables all wireless connections at once, overriding other preferences.

The iPhone 3G has a maximum download rate of 1.4 Mbps in the United States.[105] Furthermore, files downloaded over cellular networks must be smaller than 10 MB. Larger files, often email attachments or podcasts, must be downloaded over Wi-Fi (which has no file size limits). If Wi-Fi is unavailable, one workaround is to open the files directly in Safari.[106]

Safari is the iPhone's native web browser, and it displays pages similar to its Mac and Windows counterpart. Web pages may be viewed in portrait or landscape mode and supports automatic zooming by pinching together or spreading apart fingertips on the screen, or by double-tapping text or images.[107][108] The iPhone supports neither Flash[109] nor Java.[110] Consequently, the UK's Advertising Standards Authority adjudicated that an advertisement claiming the iPhone could access "all parts of the internet" should be withdrawn in its current form, on grounds of false advertising.[111] The iPhone supports SVG, CSS, HTML Canvas, and Bonjour.[112][113]

The maps application can access Google Maps in map, satellite, or hybrid form. It can also generate directions between two locations, while providing optional real-time traffic information. During the iPhone's announcement, Jobs demonstrated this feature by searching for nearby Starbucks locations and then placing a prank call to one with a single tap.[22][114] Support for walking directions, public transit, and street view was added in the version 2.2 software update.[115] The iPhone 3GS can orient the map with its digital compass.[13] Apple also developed a separate application to view YouTube videos on the iPhone, which streams videos after encoding them using the H.264 codec. Simple weather and stock quotes applications also tap in to the Internet.

iPhone users can and do access the Internet frequently, and in a variety of places. According to Google, the iPhone generates 50 times more search requests than any other mobile handset.[116] According to Deutsche Telekom CEO René Obermann, "The average Internet usage for an iPhone customer is more than 100 megabytes. This is 30 times the use for our average contract-based consumer customers."[117] Nielsen found that 98% of iPhone users use data services, and 88% use the internet.[29]

 

Text input

The virtual keyboard on the original iPhone's touchscreen.

For text input, the iPhone implements a virtual keyboard on the touchscreen. It has automatic spell checking and correction, predictive word capabilities, and a dynamic dictionary that learns new words. The keyboard can predict what word the user is typing and complete it, and correct for the accidental pressing of keys adjacent to the presumed desired key. The keys are somewhat larger and spaced farther apart when in landscape mode, which is supported by only a limited number of applications. Touching a section of text for a brief time brings up a magnifying glass, allowing users to place the cursor in the middle of existing text. The virtual keyboard can accommodate 21 languages, including character recognition for Chinese.[118] The 3.0 update brought support for cut, copy, or pasting text, as well as landscape keyboards in more applications.[44][45]

 

E-mail and text messages

The iPhone also features an e-mail program that supports HTML e-mail, which enables the user to embed photos in an e-mail message. PDF, Word, Excel, and Powerpoint attachments to mail messages can be viewed on the phone.[15] Apple's MobileMe platform offers push email, which emulates the functionality of the popular BlackBerry email solution, for an annual subscription. Yahoo! offers a free push-email service for the iPhone. IMAP (although not Push-IMAP) and POP3 mail standards are also supported, including Microsoft Exchange[119] and Kerio MailServer.[120] In the first versions of the iPhone firmware, this was accomplished by opening up IMAP on the Exchange server. Apple has also licensed Microsoft ActiveSync and now supports the platform (including push email) with the release of iPhone 2.0 firmware.[121][122] The iPhone will sync e-mail account settings over from Apple's own Mail application, Microsoft Outlook, and Microsoft Entourage, or it can be manually configured on the device itself. With the correct settings, the e-mail program can access almost any IMAP or POP3 account.[123]

Text messages are presented chronologically in a mailbox format similar to Mail, which places all text from recipients together with replies. Text messages are displayed in speech bubbles (similar to iChat) under each recipient's name. The iPhone currently has built-in support for e-mail message forwarding, drafts, and direct internal camera-to-e-mail picture sending. Support for multi-recipient SMS was added in the 1.1.3 software update.[124] Support for MMS was added in the 3.0 update, but not immediately in the U.S.[125] and not for the original iPhone.[44][45] A lack of focus on text-messaging is widely considered a chief weakness of the iPhone, although a large number of users evidently have no issue using the device for this purpose.[126]

 

Camera and photos

The photo display application

The iPhone and iPhone 3G feature a built in fixed-focus 2.0 megapixel camera located on the back for still digital photos. It has no optical zoom, flash or autofocus, and does not support video recording. Version 2.0 of iPhone OS introduced the capability to embed location data in the pictures, producing geocoded photographs. The iPhone 3GS has a 3.0 megapixel camera, with auto focus, auto white balance, and auto macro (up to 10 cm). It can also record VGA video[127][128] at 30 frames per second. It can then be cropped on the device itself and directly uploaded to YouTube, MobileMe, or other services.

The iPhone includes software that allows the user to upload, view, and e-mail photos. The user zooms in and out of photos by sliding two fingers further apart or closer together, much like Safari. The Camera application also lets users view the camera roll, the pictures that have been taken with the iPhone's camera. Those pictures are also available in the Photos application, along with any transferred from iPhoto or Aperture on a Mac, or Photoshop in Windows.

 

Third party applications

At WWDC 2007 on June 11, 2007 Apple announced that the iPhone would support third-party "web applications" written in AJAX that share the look and feel of the iPhone interface.[129] On October 17, 2007, Steve Jobs, in an open letter posted to Apple's "Hot News" weblog, announced that a software development kit (SDK) would be made available to third-party developers in February 2008. The iPhone SDK was officially announced on March 6, 2008, at the Apple Town Hall facility.[130] It allows developers to develop native applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch, as well as test them in an "iPhone simulator". However, loading an application onto the devices is only possible after paying a Apple Developer Connection membership fee. Developers are free to set any price for their applications to be distributed through the App Store, of which they will receive a 70 percent share.[131] Developers can also opt to release the application for free and will not pay any costs to release or distribute the application beyond the membership fee. The SDK was made available immediately, while the launch of applications had to wait until the firmware update which was released on July 11, 2008.[122] The update was free for iPhone users, but not for owners of iPod Touches with the 1.x release of iPhone OS, whose operating system can be updated to the current version of iPhone OS, so that they can run iPhone applications, only after paying a $10 fee.[132]

Once a developer has submitted an application to the App Store, Apple holds firm control over its distribution. For example, Apple can halt the distribution of applications it deems inappropriate as has happened with a US$1000 program that has as sole purpose to demonstrate the wealth of its user.[133] Apple has been criticized for banning third party applications that enable a functionality that Apple doesn't want the iPhone to have. In 2008, Apple rejected Podcaster, which allowed iPhone users to download podcasts directly to the iPhone claiming it duplicated the functionality of iTunes.[134] Apple has since released a software update that grants this capability.[115] NetShare, another rejected app, would have enabled users to tether their iPhone to a laptop or desktop, using its cellular network to load data for the computer.[135]

Before the SDK was released, third-parties were permitted to design "Web Apps" that would run through Safari.[136] Unsigned native applications are also available.[137] The ability to install native applications onto the iPhone outside of the App Store will not be supported by Apple. Such native applications could be broken by any software update, but Apple has stated it will not design software updates specifically to break native applications other than those that perform SIM unlocking.[138]

 

Accessibility

The iPhone can enlarge text to make it more accessible for vision-impaired users,[139] and can accommodate hearing-impaired users with closed captioning and external TTY devices.[140] The iPhone 3GS also features black on white mode, VoiceOver (a screenreader), and zooming for impaired vision, and mono audio for limited hearing in one ear.[141]

Nevertheless, Apple states that "[e]ffective use of the iPhone requires a minimal level of visual acuity, motor skills, and an ability to operate a few mechanical buttons. Use of iPhone by someone who relies solely on audible and tactile input is not recommended."[142] The iPhone 3G has not been rated under the United States Federal Communication Commission guidelines for hearing aid compatibility at either level M3 or T3.[142]

 

Intellectual property

Apple has filed more than 200 patents related to the technology behind the iPhone.[143][144]

LG Electronics claimed the iPhone's design was copied from the LG Prada. Woo-Young Kwak, head of LG Mobile Handset R&D Center, said at a press conference, “We consider that Apple copied Prada phone after the design was unveiled when it was presented in the iF Design Award and won the prize in September 2006.”[145]

On September 3, 1993, Infogear filed for the U.S. trademark "I PHONE"[146] and on March 20, 1996 applied for the trademark "IPhone".[147] "I Phone" was registered in March 1998,[146] and "IPhone" was registered in 1999.[147] Since then, the I PHONE mark had been abandoned.[146] Infogear's trademarks cover "communications terminals comprising computer hardware and software providing integrated telephone, data communications and personal computer functions" (1993 filing),[146] and "computer hardware and software for providing integrated telephone communication with computerized global information networks" (1996 filing).[148] Infogear released a telephone with an integrated web browser under the name iPhone in 1998.[149] In 2000, Infogear won an infringement claim against the owners of the iphones.com domain name.[150] In June 2000, Cisco Systems acquired Infogear, including the iPhone trademark.[151] On December 18, 2006 they released a range of re-branded Voice over IP (VoIP) sets under the name iPhone.[152]

In October 2002, Apple applied for the "iPhone" trademark in the United Kingdom, Australia, Singapore, and the European Union. A Canadian application followed in October 2004 and a New Zealand application in September 2006. As of October 2006 only the Singapore and Australian applications had been granted. In September 2006, a company called Ocean Telecom Services applied for an "iPhone" trademark in the United States, United Kingdom and Hong Kong, following a filing in Trinidad and Tobago.[153] As the Ocean Telecom trademark applications use exactly the same wording as Apple's New Zealand application, it is assumed that Ocean Telecom is applying on behalf of Apple.[154] The Canadian application was opposed in August 2005 by a Canadian company called Comwave who themselves applied for the trademark three months later. Comwave have been selling VoIP devices called iPhone since 2004.[151]

Shortly after Steve Jobs' January 9, 2007 announcement that Apple would be selling a product called iPhone in June 2007, Cisco issued a statement that it had been negotiating trademark licensing with Apple and expected Apple to agree to the final documents that had been submitted the night before.[155] On January 10, 2007 Cisco announced it had filed a lawsuit against Apple over the infringement of the trademark iPhone, seeking an injunction in federal court to prohibit Apple from using the name.[156] More recently, Cisco claimed that the trademark lawsuit was a "minor skirmish" that was not about money, but about interoperability.[157]

On February 2, 2007, Apple and Cisco announced that they had agreed to temporarily suspend litigation while they hold settlement talks,[158] and subsequently announced on February 20, 2007 that they had reached an agreement. Both companies will be allowed to use the "iPhone" name[159] in exchange for "exploring interoperability" between their security, consumer, and business communications products.[160]

The iPhone has also inspired several leading high-tech clones,[161] driving both Apple's popularity and consumer willingness to upgrade iPhones quickly.[162]

 

Restrictions

Unlocked iPhone firmware version 3.0.

Apple tightly controls certain aspects of the iPhone. The hacker community has found many workarounds, most of which are condemned by Apple and threaten to void the device's warranty.[163] All iPhones must be activated (assigned a telephone number and carrier) before most features become available. "Jailbreaking" allows users to install apps not available on the App Store or modify basic functionality. SIM unlocking allows the iPhone to be used on a different carrier's network.[164]

 

Activation

The iPhone normally prevents access to its media player and web features unless it has also been activated as a phone with an authorized carrier. On July 3, 2007, Jon Lech Johansen reported on his blog that he had successfully bypassed this requirement and unlocked the iPhone's other features with a combination of custom software and modification of the iTunes binary. He published the software and offsets for others to use.[165]

Unlike the original, the iPhone 3G must be activated in the store in most countries.[166] This makes the iPhone 3G more difficult, but not impossible, to hack. The need for in-store activation, as well as the huge number of first-generation iPhone and iPod Touch users upgrading to iPhone OS 2.0, caused a worldwide overload of Apple's servers on July 11, 2008, the day on which both the iPhone 3G and iPhone OS 2.0 updates as well as MobileMe were released. After the update, devices were required to connect to Apple's servers to authenticate the update, causing many devices to be temporarily unusable.[167] Apple avoided this by releasing the 3.0 software two days before the iPhone 3GS.

Users on the O2 network in the United Kingdom, however, can buy the phone online and activate it via iTunes as with the previous model.[168] Even where not required, vendors usually offer activation for the buyer's convenience. In the U.S., Apple has begun to offer free shipping on both the iPhone 3G and the iPhone 3GS (when available), reversing the in-store activation requirement. Best Buy and Wal-Mart will also sell the iPhone.[169]

 

Third party applications ("jailbreaking")

The iPhone's operating system is designed to only run software that has an Apple-approved cryptographic signature. This restriction can be overcome by "jailbreaking" the phone,[170] which involves replacing the iPhone's firmware with a slightly modified version that does not enforce the signature check. Doing so may be a circumvention of Apple's technical protection measures.[171] Apple, in a statement to the United States Copyright Office in response to EFF lobbying for a DMCA exception for this kind of hacking, claimed that jailbreaking the iPhone would be copyright infringement due to the necessary modification of system software.[172]

 

SIM unlocking

An original iPhone shown with the SIM tray partially ejected.

While the iPhone was initially sold on the AT&T network only with a SIM lock in place, various hackers have found methods to "unlock" the phone from a specific network.[173] Although AT&T is the only authorized iPhone carrier in the United States, unlocked iPhones can be used with an unauthorized carrier after unlocking.[174] More than a quarter of the original iPhones sold in the United States were not registered with AT&T. Apple speculates that they were likely shipped overseas and unlocked, a lucrative market prior to the iPhone 3G's worldwide release.[175] Unlocking iPhones in the U.S. is done because many would-be users dislike switching carriers or consider AT&T's monthly fees too expensive.[28]

On November 21, 2007, T-Mobile in Germany announced it would sell the phone unlocked and without a T-Mobile contract, caused by a preliminary injunction against T-Mobile put in place by their competitor, Vodafone.[176] On December 4, 2007, a German court decided to grant T-Mobile exclusive rights to sell the iPhone with SIM lock, overturning the temporary injunction.[177] In addition, T-Mobile will voluntarily offer to unlock customers' iPhone after the contract expires.[178]

AT&T has stated that the "iPhone cannot be unlocked, even if you are out of contract".[174][179] On March 26, 2009 AT&T in the United States began selling the iPhone without a contract, though still SIM-locked to their network.[180] Such iPhone units are often twice as expensive as those with contracts, because Apple and AT&T lose the deferred income.[181] Vendors in Hong Kong, Italy, New Zealand, and Russia (among others) sell iPhones not locked to any carrier.[75] In Australia, all three carriers (Optus, Telstra, and Vodafone) sell locked phones, but will unlock upon request

Iphone

The iPhone (pronounced /ˈaɪfoʊn/ eye-fohn) is a line of Internet- and multimedia-enabled smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first iPhone was unveiled by Apple CEO Steve Jobs on January 9, 2007,[1] and released on June 29, 2007.

An iPhone can function as a video camera (video recording was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS was released), a camera phone, can send texts and receive visual voicemail, a portable media player, and an Internet client with e-mail and web browsing capabilities, and both Wi-Fi and 3G connectivity. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard rather than a physical one. Third-party as well as Apple application software is available from the App Store, which launched in mid-2008 and now has over 350,000[2] "apps" approved by Apple. These apps have diverse functionalities, including games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, security and advertising for television shows, films, and celebrities.

There are four generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the four major releases of iOS (formerly iPhone OS). The original iPhone was a GSM phone that established design precedents like screen size and button placement that have persisted through all models. The iPhone 3G added 3G cellular network capabilities and A-GPS location. The iPhone 3GS added a compass, faster processor, and higher resolution camera, including video recording at 480p. The iPhone 4 has a rear facing camera and a front facing camera (at a lower resolution) for FaceTime video calling and for use in other apps like skype. The phone also featured a higher-resolution display; it was released on June 24, 2010. In the U.S., AT&T was the only authorized carrier until February 10, 2011, when a CDMA version of the iPhone 4 launched for Verizon, it is assumed that other vendors will begin to support and sell the phone in the future.

 

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