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Continuity equation

A continuity equation in physics is a differential equation that describes the transport of some kind of conserved quantity. Since mass, energy, momentum, electric charge and other natural quantities are conserved, a vast variety of physics may be described with continuity equations. Continuity equations are the (stronger) local form of conservation laws. All the examples of continuity equations below express the same idea, which is roughly that: the total amount (of the conserved quantity) ins


Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generating fusion energy that uses magnetic fields to confine the fusion fuel in the form of a plasma. Magnetic confinement is one of two major branches of fusion energy research, the other being inertial confinement fusion. The magnetic approach is more highly developed and is usually considered more promising for energy production. A 500-MW heat generating fusion plant using tokamak magnetic confinement geometry is currently being built in France

List of particles

This is a list of the different types of particles found or believed to exist in the whole of the universe. For individual lists of the different particles, see the individual pages given below. Elementary particles Elementary particles are particles with no measurable internal structure; that is, they are not composed of other particles. They are the fundamental objects of quantum field theory. Many families and sub-families of elementary particles exist. Elementary particles are classified ac


Time is a component of a measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify the motions of objects. Time has been a major subject of religion, philosophy, and science, but defining time in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study has consistently eluded the greatest scholars. In physics and other sciences, time is considered one of the few fundamental quantities. [2] Time is used to define other quanti

Atmospheric thermodynamics

In the physical sciences, atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat and energy transformations in the earth’s atmospheric system. Following the fundamental laws of classical thermodynamics, atmospheric thermodynamics studies such phenomenon as properties of moist air, formation of clouds, atmospheric convection, boundary layer meteorology, and vertical stabilities in the atmosphere. Atmospheric thermodynamic diagrams are used as tools in the forecasting of storm development. Atmospheric t


In physics, mass (from Ancient Greek: µᾶ?a ) commonly refers to any of three properties of matter, which have been shown experimentally to be equivalent: Inertial mass, active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass . CHUBBY TOES!!!! Ugly mass must be distinguished from matter in physics, because matter is a poorly-defined concept, and although all types of agreed-upon matter exhibit mass, it is also the case that many types of energy which are not matter— such as potential ener

Galilean invariance

Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity is a principle of relativity which states that the fundamental laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. Galileo Galilei first described this principle in 1632 in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems using the example of a ship traveling at constant speed, without rocking, on a smooth sea; any observer doing experiments below the deck would not be able to tell whether the ship was moving or stationary. Today one can make the s


An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of an electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current ceases Invention and history British electrician William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet in 1825. The first electromagnet was a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that was wrapped with a loosely wound coil of several turns. When a current was passed through the coil, the electromagnet became magnetized and when the current was stopped, t


An early naval cannon, which is allowed to roll backwards a little when fired. Recoil, in common everyday language, is considered the backward kick or force produced by a gun when it is fired. In more precise scientific terms, this force is equal to the derivative of the backward momentum resulting when a gun is fired. The backward momentum is equal to the mass of the gun times its reverse velocity. This backward momentum is equal to the sums of the two forward momentums by the law of conservat


In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or, equivalently, N·s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. For more accurate measures of momentum, see the section "modern definitions of momentum" on this page. It is sometimes referred to as linear momentum to distinguish it from the related subject of angular momentum. Momentum is a conserved quantity, meaning that the total momentum of any closed system (one not affected by external forces) cannot change. The c


In physics, power is the rate at which work is performed or energy is converted [ 1 ] [ 2 ] If ? W is the amount of work performed during a period of time of duration ? t , the average power P avg over that period is given by the formula It is the average amount of work done or energy converted per unit of time. The average power is often simply called "power" when the context makes it clear. The instantaneous power is then the limiting value of the average power as the time interval ? t approa

Drift velocity

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field. In general, an electron will rattle around in a conductor at the Fermi velocity randomly. An applied electric field will give this random motion a small net velocity in one direction In a semiconductor, the two main carrier scattering mechanisms are ionized impurity scattering and lattice scattering. Because current is proportional to drift velocity, which is, in turn, proportional

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a few atoms. The three areas are grouped together because of their interrelationships, the similarity of methods used, and the commonality of the energy scales that are relevant. Physicists sometimes abbreviate the field as AMO physics. All three areas include both classical and quantum treatments. Atomic physics Atomic physics studies the elec


Relationship between force (F), torque (t), and momentum vectors (p and L) in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only. (Forces and moments due to gravity and friction not shown.) Torque , also called moment or moment of force (see "Terminology" below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, [ 1 ] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist. In more basic terms, torque measures how hard something is twiste

Diffusion in physics

In molecular diffusion, the moving entities are small molecules which are self propelled by thermal energy and do not require a concentration gradient to spread out through random motion. They move at random because they frequently collide. Diffusion is this thermal motion of all (liquid and gas) molecules at temperatures above absolute zero. Diffusion rate is a function of only temperature, and is not affected by concentration. Brownian motion is observed in molecules that are so large that th

Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton 's law of universal gravitation is an empirical physical law describing the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass. It is a part of classical mechanics and was first formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica , first published on July 5 , 1687 . In modern language it states the following: Every point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is proportional to the product of


Annealing , in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. It is a process that produces conditions by heating to above the recrystallization temperature and maintaining a suitable temperature, and then cooling. Annealing is used to induce ductility, soften material, relieve internal stresses, refine the structure by making it homogeneous, and improve cold working properties. In the cases o

Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics , an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid . The term "adiabatic" literally means impassable (from Greek ἀ-d?ὰ-ßaῖ?e??, not-through-to pass), corresponding here to an absence of heat transfer . Conversely, a process that involves heat transfer (addition or loss of heat to the surroundings) is generally called diabatic. For example, an adiabatic boundary is a boundary


Gamma rays (denoted as ?) are a form of electromagnetic radiation produced by sub-atomic particle interactions, such as electron-positron annihilation or radioactive decay. They have the highest frequency (above 10 19 Hz) and energy (above 100 keV), and also the shortest wavelength (below about 10 picometers), in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays were discovered by Paul Villard, a French chemist and physicist, in 1900, while studying uranium. Hard X-rays overlap the range of "long"-wavel

Pressure measurement

Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges . A manometer could also be referring to a pressure measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is often used to refer specifically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments. A vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuum—which is further divided into two subcategories:

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