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Harmonic oscillator

In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system which, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F , proportional to the displacement, x according to Hooke's law: where k is a positive constant. If F is the only force acting on the system, the system is called a simple harmonic oscillator , and it undergoes simple harmonic motion: sinusoidal oscillations about the equilibrium point, with a constant amplitude and a constant frequency (which does n

Solid mechanics

Solid mechanics is the branch of mechanics, physics, and mathematics that concerns the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e.g., external forces, temperature changes, applied displacements, etc.). It is part of a broader study known as continuum mechanics. One of the most common practical applications of Solid Mechanics is the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. Solid mechanics extensively uses tensors to describe stresses, strains, and the relationship between them. Response models The

Subatomic particle

n physics or chemistry, subatomic particles are the smaller particles composing nucleons and atoms. There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles, which are not made of other particles, andcomposite particles. Particle physics and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact. [ 1 ] Elementary particles of the Standard Model include: [ 2 ] Six "flavors" of quarks: up, down, bottom, top, strange, and charm; Six types of leptons: electron, electron neutrino, muon,


In physics, a magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving electric charges and on magnetic dipoles (such as permanent magnets). When placed in a magnetic field, magnetic dipoles tend to align their axes to be parallel with the magnetic field, as can be seen when iron filings are in the presence of a magnet (see picture at right). In addition, a changing magnetic field can induce an electric field. Magnetic fields surround and are created by elec


The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. The ground state of a quantum field theory is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum. If more than one ground state exists, they are said to be degenerate. Many systems have degenerate ground states, such as the hydrogen atom. It turns out that degeneracy occurs


In physics, a fundamental interaction or fundamental force is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. Overview In the conceptual model of fundamental interactions, matter consists of fermions, which carry properties called charges and spin 1/2 (intrinsic angular momentum ±ℏ/2, where ℏ is reduced Planck's constant). They attract or repel each other by exchanging bosons. The interaction of any pair of


Magnetization , M , is defined as the quantity ofmagnetic moment per unit volume, V : Here, N is the number of magnetic moments in the sample. The quantity N/V is usually written as n , the number density of magnetic moments. The M-field is measured in amperes per meter (A/m) in SI units. [ 1 ] The origin of the magnetic moments responsible for magnetization can be either microscopic electric currents resulting from the motion of electrons inatoms, or the spin of the electrons or the nuclei. Ne


Energy is a word with more than one meaning. Energy broadly means the capacity of something, a person, an animal or a physical system to do work and produce change. It can refer to the ability for someone to act or speak in a lively and vigorous way. It is used in science to describe how much potential a physical system has to change. It may also be used in economics to describe the part of the market where energy itself is harnessed and sold to consumers. Energy in Science Energy is something


In classical mechanics, an impulse (abbreviated I or J ) is defined as the integral of a force with respect to time. When a force is applied to a rigid body it changes the momentum of that body. A small force applied for a long time can produce the same momentum change as a large force applied briefly, because it is the product of the force and the time for which it is applied that is important. The impulse is equal to the change of momentum.


In physics, force is action or agency that causes a body of mass m to accelerate. It may be experienced as a lift, a push, or a pull. The acceleration of the body is proportional to the vector sum of all forces acting on it (known as net force or resultant force). In an extended body, force may also cause rotation, deformation, or an increase in pressure for the body. Rotational effects are determined by the torques, while deformation and pressure are determined by the stresses that the forces


Forces are often described as pushes, pulls or lifts. They can be due to phenomena such as gravity, magnetism, or anything else that causes a mass to accelerate. In physics, force is what causes a mass to accelerate. It may be experienced as a lift, a push, or a pull. The acceleration of the body is proportional to the vector sum of all forces acting on it (known as the net force or resultant force ). In an extended body, force may also cause rotation, deformation, or an increase in pressure fo

Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics , an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid . The term "adiabatic" literally means impassable (from Greek ἀ-d?ὰ-ßaῖ?e??, not-through-to pass), corresponding here to an absence of heat transfer . Conversely, a process that involves heat transfer (addition or loss of heat to the surroundings) is generally called diabatic. For example, an adiabatic boundary is a boundary


The magnitude of an electric field surrounding two equally charged (repelling) particles. Brighter areas have a greater magnitude. The direction of the field is not visible. Oppositely charged (attracting) particles. In physics, a field is the presence of a physical quantity at every point in space (or, more generally, spacetime). A field is thus viewed as extending throughout a large region of space so that its influence is all-pervading. The strength of a field usually varies over a region. F


Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary subatomic constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactive relationship between them. It is also called high energy physics , because many elementary particles do not occur under normal circumstances in nature due to energetic instability, but can be created and detected during high energy collisions with other particles, as is done in particle accelerators. Scientific research in this area has produced a long list of


In physics, the electron volt (symbol eV ; also written electronvolt [ 1 ] [ 2 ] ) is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.602 × 10 -19 J . By definition, it is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gained by a single unbound electron when it accelerates through an electric potential difference of one volt. Thus it is 1 volt (1 joule per coulomb) multiplied by the electron charge (1 e, or 1.602 1 76 5 3(14) × 10 -19 C ). Therefore, one electron volt is equal to 1.602 1 76 5 3(14) × 10 -19

Cloud physics

Cloud physics is the study of the physical processes that lead to the formation, growth and precipitation of clouds. Clouds are composed of microscopic droplets of water (warm clouds), tiny crystals of ice, or both (mixed phase clouds). Under suitable conditions, the droplets combine to form precipitation, where they may fall to the earth. The precise mechanics of how a cloud forms and grows is not completely understood, but scientists have developed theories explaining the structure of clouds


Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and flu


In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple like-charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy, which allows matter to enter a plasma state. The fusion of two nuclei with lower mass than iron (which, along with nickel, has the largest binding energy per nucleon) generally releases energy while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbs energy; vice-versa for the reverse pr


Relationship between force (F), torque (t), and momentum vectors (p and L) in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only. (Forces and moments due to gravity and friction not shown.) Torque , also called moment or moment of force (see "Terminology" below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, [ 1 ] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist. In more basic terms, torque measures how hard something is twiste


A wave is a type of change that moves from one place to another. Examples of Waves Waves are found everywhere in the natural world. Examples of waves: sound light [1] water waves earthquake waves Properties of Waves Waves have properties that can be measured. All waves are made by adding sine waves. Here is a picture of a sine wave: Sine waves can be measured too. The shape of a sine wave is given by its amplitude, phase, wavelength and frequency. The speed that the sine wave moves can be measu

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