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A pulley is something that is used to lift heavy objects. It is a kind of simple machine. It is sometimes called a block and tackle. Pulleys are usually used in sets designed to make the amount of force needed to lift something smaller. Types of pulleys Fixed A fixed or class 1 pulley has an axle that is "fixed" or anchored in place. A fixed pulley is used to redirect the force in a rope (called a belt when it goes in a full circle). A fixed pulley has a mechanical advantage of 1. Movable A mov

Convective heat transfer

Convective heat transfer , often referred to as convection , is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids. The presence of bulk motion of the fluid enhances the heat transfer between the solid surface and the fluid. [ 1 ] Convection is usually the dominant form of heat transfer in liquids and gases. Although often discussed as a third method of heat transfer, convective heat transfer actually describes the combined effects of conduction and fluid flow . The term c


Sensible heat is potential energy in the form of thermal energy or heat. The thermal body must have a temperature higher than its surroundings, (also see: latent heat). The thermal energy can be transported via conduction, convection, radiation or by a combination thereof. The quantity or magnitude of sensible heat is the product of the body's mass, its specific heat capacity and its temperature above a reference temperature. In many cases the reference temperature is inferred from common k


Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian Mechanics after Isaac Newton who made major fundamental contributions to the understanding of it) is the physics of stationary objects (statics), moving objects (kinematics & dynamics) and their interactions. Classical mechanics is applied to a wide variety of problems---from the very fundamental baseball problem, to calculus intensive rocket science. As you can see, the foundations for our understanding of the world start out with physics and its cla


Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and flu


Energy is a word with more than one meaning. Energy broadly means the capacity of something, a person, an animal or a physical system to do work and produce change. It can refer to the ability for someone to act or speak in a lively and vigorous way. It is used in science to describe how much potential a physical system has to change. It may also be used in economics to describe the part of the market where energy itself is harnessed and sold to consumers. Energy in Science Energy is something


In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or, equivalently, N·s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. For more accurate measures of momentum, see the section "modern definitions of momentum" on this page. It is sometimes referred to as linear momentum to distinguish it from the related subject of angular momentum. Momentum is a conserved quantity, meaning that the total momentum of any closed system (one not affected by external forces) cannot change. The c


Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. The magnetic field is produced by the motion of electric charges, i.e. electric current. The magnetic field causes the magnetic force associated with magnets. A changing magnetic field produces an electric field (this is the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, the basis of


Friction is the force resisting the relative lateral (tangential) motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, or material elements in contact. It is usually subdivided into several varieties: Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is also subdivided into static friction between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction (sometimes called sliding friction or dynamic friction ) between moving surfaces. Lubricated friction [ 1 ] or fluid friction [ 2


In physics, a force is any influence that causes a free body to undergo an acceleration. Force can also be described by intuitive concepts such as a push or pull that can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. Newton's second law, F=ma, can be formulated to state that an object with a cons


In physics, the world line of an object is the unique path of that object as it travels through 4-dimensional spacetime. The concept of "world line" is distinguished from the concept of "orbit" or "trajectory" (such as an orbit in space or a trajectory of a truck on a road map) by the time dimension, and typically encompasses a large area of spacetime wherein perceptually straight paths are recalculated to show their (relatively) more absolute position states — to reveal the nature of special r

Invariant mass

The invariant mass , intrinsic mass , proper mass or just mass is a characteristic of the total energy and momentum of an object or a system of objects that is the same in all frames of reference. When the system as a whole is at rest, the invariant mass is equal to the total energy of the system divided by c 2 , which is equal to the mass of the system as measured on a scale. If the system is one particle, the invariant mass may also be called the rest mass . Since the center of mass of an iso


In physics, a magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving electric charges and on magnetic dipoles (such as permanent magnets). When placed in a magnetic field, magnetic dipoles tend to align their axes to be parallel with the magnetic field, as can be seen when iron filings are in the presence of a magnet (see picture at right). In addition, a changing magnetic field can induce an electric field. Magnetic fields surround and are created by elec


In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple like-charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy, which allows matter to enter a plasma state. The fusion of two nuclei with lower mass than iron (which, along with nickel, has the largest binding energy per nucleon) generally releases energy while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbs energy; vice-versa for the reverse pr


In kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity. The average speed of an object in an interval of time is the distance traveled by the object divided by the duration of the interval; the instantaneous speed is the limit of the average speed as the duration of the time interval approaches zero . Like velocity, speed has the dimensions of a length divided by a time; the SI unit of speed is the meter per seco


Reflection is the change in direction of a wave at a boundary between two different media, so that the wave moves back into the same medium form which it came from. The most common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves. Diagram showing specular reflection Specular reflection is a mirror-like reflection of light from a surface, in which light from a single incoming direction is reflected into a single outgoing direction. In the diagram to the right, a light ray is comin


A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so it can swing freely. [ 1 ] When a pendulum is displaced from its resting equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the restoring force combined with the pendulum's mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is called the period. Fro


A physical quantity is a physical property that can be quantified. This means it can be measured and/or calculated. The value of a physical quantity Q is expressed as the product of a numerical value {Q} and a physical unit [Q]. Q = {Q} x [Q] (SI units are usually preferred today). The notion of physical dimension of a physical quantity was introduced by Fourier (1822). Example If a certain value of power is written as P = 42.3 x 103 W = 42.3 kW, then P represents the physical quantity of power

Particle physics

Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Electrically charged particles are discernible by the curves they trace in the detector's magnetic field. Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. It is also called "high energy physics", because many elementary particles do n

Halogen lamp

A halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp in which a tungsten filament is sealed into a compact transparent envelope filled with an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine. The combination of the halogen gas and the tungsten filament produces a chemical reaction known as a halogen cycle (see below) that increases the lifetime of the bulb and prevents its darkening by redepositing tungsten from the inside of the bulb back onto the filament. The halogen lamp can operate i

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