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Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and flu


In physics, there are two kinds of dipoles : An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A permanent electric dipole is called an electret. A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric current. A simple example of this is a single loop of wire with some constant current flowing through it. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Dipoles can be charac


In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, such as solids and some liquids. Often referred to as a quasiparticle, [ 1 ] it represents an excited state in the quantum mechanical quantization of the modes of vibrations of elastic structures of interacting particles. Phonons play a major role in many of the physical properties of solids, including a material's thermal and electrical conductivities. Hence the stu

Chapter 1.2

Whenever a charge flows, we have current. Current can be defined as the rate of flow of charge thus if in a conductor we have I current, charge of flowing for + seconds we have . Actually current is defined as as rate of flow of charge. Thus unit of current is Coulumb/second = CS -1. We say 1 CS -1 = 1 Ampere. Current is a scalar quantity. Eg: It 5 coulumb charge flows through a conductor in 1 seconds the we say current = 5 coulumb (sec =5 Ampere. From now onwards we will say unit of current is


Biophysics (also biological physics ) is an interdisciplinary science that employs and develops theories and methods of the physical sciences for the investigation of biological systems. Studies included under the umbrella of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, agrophysics and systems biology. Molecular biophysics typic

Solid mechanics

Solid mechanics is the branch of mechanics, physics, and mathematics that concerns the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e.g., external forces, temperature changes, applied displacements, etc.). It is part of a broader study known as continuum mechanics. One of the most common practical applications of solid mechanics is the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation . Solid mechanics extensively uses tensors to describe stresses, strains, and the relationship between them. Response models A

Mechanical equilibrium

A standard definition of static equilibrium is: A system of particles is in static equilibrium when all the particles of the system are at rest and the total force on each particle is permanently zero. [ 1 ] This is a strict definition, and often the term "static equilibrium" is used in a more relaxed manner interchangeably with "mechanical equilibrium", as defined next. [ 2 ] A standard definition of mechanical equilibrium for a particle is: The necessary and sufficient conditions for a partic


Energy is a word with more than one meaning. Energy broadly means the capacity of something, a person, an animal or a physical system to do work and produce change. It can refer to the ability for someone to act or speak in a lively and vigorous way. It is used in science to describe how much potential a physical system has to change. It may also be used in economics to describe the part of the market where energy itself is harnessed and sold to consumers. Energy in Science Energy is something


Sensible heat is potential energy in the form of thermal energy or heat. The thermal body must have a temperature higher than its surroundings, (also see: latent heat). The thermal energy can be transported via conduction, convection, radiation or by a combination thereof. The quantity or magnitude of sensible heat is the product of the body's mass, its specific heat capacity and its temperature above a reference temperature. In many cases the reference temperature is inferred from common k

The Story-Line of Light and Matter

I've tried not to make Light and Matter a traditional "kitchen sink" or "march through the topics" book. It has a coherent storyline built around light and matter: how they behave, how they are different from each other, and, at the end of the day, how they turn out to be similar in some very bizarre ways. 1 Newtonian Physics Matter moves at constant speed in a straight line unless a force acts on it. (This seems intuitively wrong only because we tend to forget the role of friction forces.)


In physics and thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one place in a body or thermodynamic system to another place, or beyond the boundary of one system to another one due to thermal contact even when the systems are at different temperatures. It is also often described as the process of transfer of energy between physical entities. In this description, it is an energy transfer to the body in any other way than due to work performed on the body. [ 1 ] In engineering, the discipline of

Aim? Argand

François Pierre Ami Argand (5 July 1750 – 14 October 1803) was a Swiss physicist and chemist. he invented the Argand lamp, a great improvement on the traditional oil lamp. Early years Francois-Pierre-Ami Argand was born in Geneva, Switzerland, the ninth of ten children. His father was a watchmaker, who intended for him to enter the clergy. However, he had an aptitude more for science, and became a pupil of the noted botanist and meteorologist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure. He published several sc


The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ? (the Greek letter rho). In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is also defined as its weight per unit volume; [ 1 ] although, this quantity is more properly called specific weight. Different materials usually have different densities, so density is an important concept regarding buoyancy, purity and packaging. Osmium is the dense

Cycle (music)

In music a cycle is a section which is repeated or repeatable indefinitely, with the end of a preceding repetition leading to the beginning of a succeeding repetition. Cycles may be melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, or based on some other musical dimension. Cycles may begin at any point in a composition or in relation to another cycle, contain or consist of cycles, and may be varied upon repetition. Melodic and harmonic cycles A repeated melodic pattern, or ostinato, can form a cycle. This can happe


Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency . The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. Definitions and units For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles , or periods, per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics, acoustics, and radio, frequency is usually denote


Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to investigate the existence and causes of psychic abilities and life after death using the scientific method. [ 1 ] Parapsychological experiments have included the use of random number generators to test for evidence of precognition and psychokinesis with both human and animal subjects [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and Ganzfeld experiments to test for extrasensory perception. [ 5 ] While the results of such experiments are regarded by some parapsychologists as hav


Length is the long dimension of any object. The length of a thing is the distance between its ends, its linear extent as measured from end to end. This may be distinguished from height , which is vertical extent, and width or breadth , which are the distance from side to side, measuring across the object at right angles to the length. In the physical sciences and engineering, the word "length" is typically used synonymously with " distance ", with symbol l or L . Length is a measure of one dime


Space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. [1] Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of the boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. In mathematics spaces with different numbers of dimensions and with different underlying structures can be examined. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental i

Pressure measurement

Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges . A manometer could also be referring to a pressure measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is often used to refer specifically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments. A vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuum—which is further divided into two subcategories:

The Method of Mechanical Theorems

The Method of Mechanical Theorems is a work by Archimedes which contains the first attested explicit use of infinitesimals. The work was lost, but was rediscovered in the celebrated Archimedes Palimpsest. The palimpsest includes Archimedes' account of the "mechanical method", so called because it relies on the law of the lever, which was first demonstrated by Archimedes, and of the center of gravity, which he had found for many special cases. Archimedes did not admit infinitesimals as part

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