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Dynamics (physics)

In physics the term dynamics customarily refers to the time evolution of physical processes. These processes may be microscopic as in particle physics, kinetic theory, and chemical reactions, [ 1 ] or macroscopic as in the predictions of statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

Bioelectromagnetism

Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. Examples include the cell potential of cell membranes and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. It is not to be confused with bioelectromagnetics, which deals with the effect on life from external electromagnetism. Description Biological cells use bioelectricity to store metabol

DIPOLES

In physics, there are two kinds of dipoles : An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A permanent electric dipole is called an electret. A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric current. A simple example of this is a single loop of wire with some constant current flowing through it. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Dipoles can be charac

CHARGE

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics. Charges are associated with conserved quantum numbers. Formal definition More abstractly, a charge is any generator of a continuous symmetry of the physical system under study. When a physical system has a symmetry of some sort, Noether's theorem implies the existence of a conserved current. The thing that "flows" in the current i

CLASSICAL MECHANICS

Classical mechanics (often called Newtonian Mechanics after Isaac Newton who made major fundamental contributions to the understanding of it) is the physics of stationary objects (statics), moving objects (kinematics & dynamics) and their interactions. Classical mechanics is applied to a wide variety of problems---from the very fundamental baseball problem, to calculus intensive rocket science. As you can see, the foundations for our understanding of the world start out with physics and its cla

ELECTRIC CURRENT

Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. The SI unit of electric current is the ampere (A), which is equal to a flow of one coulomb of charge per second. Definition The amount of electric current (measured in amperes) through some surface, e.g., a section through a copper conductor, is defined as the amount of electric charge (measured in coulombs) flowing through that surface over time. If Q is the amount of charge that passed through the surface in the time t, then the aver

Hot cathode

In vacuum tubes, a hot cathode is a cathode electrode which emits electrons due to thermionic emission. In the accelerator community, these are referred to as thermionic cathodes. ( Cf. cold cathodes, where field electron emission is used and which do not require heating.) The heating element is usually an electrical filament . Hot cathodes typically achieve much higher power density than cold cathodes, emitting significantly more electrons from the same surface area. Hot cathodes are the main

Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics, directly relating the forces acting on a body to the motion of the body. They were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica , first published on July 5, 1687. [ 1 ] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. [ 2 ] For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion,

ELEMENTARY PARTICLE

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not known to be made up of smaller particles. If an elementary particle truly has no substructure, then it is one of the basic building blocks of the universe from which all other particles are made. In the Standard Model, the quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons are elementary particles.[1][2] Historically, the hadrons (mesons and baryons such as the proton and neutron)

Antimatter

In particle physics, antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter, where antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. For example, a positron (also called "antielectron") and an antiproton can form an antihydrogen atom in the same way that an electron and a proton form a normal matter hydrogen atom. Furthermore, mixing matter and antimatter can lead to the annihilation of both in the same way that mixing antipar

Impulse

In classical mechanics, an impulse is defined as the integral of a force with respect to time. When a force is applied to a rigid body it changes the momentum of that body. A small force applied for a long time can produce the same momentum change as a large force applied briefly, because it is the product of the force and the time for which it is applied that is important. The impulse is equal to the change of momentum.

Pressure

Pressure (the symbol: P ) is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure. Definition Pressure is an effect which occurs when a force is applied on a surface. Pressure is the amount of force acting on a unit area. The symbol of pressure is P . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Formula Conjugate variables of thermodynamics Pressure Volume (Stress) (Strain) Temperature Entropy Chemical pote

Electronvolt

In physics, the electron volt (symbol eV ; also written electronvolt [ 1 ] [ 2 ] ) is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.602 × 10 -19 J . By definition, it is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gained by a single unbound electron when it accelerates through an electric potential difference of one volt. Thus it is 1 volt (1 joule per coulomb) multiplied by the electron charge (1 e, or 1.602 1 76 5 3(14) × 10 -19 C ). Therefore, one electron volt is equal to 1.602 1 76 5 3(14) × 10 -19

Acceleration

In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity over time. [ 1 ] In one dimension, acceleration is the rate at which something speeds up or slows down. However, since velocity is a vector, acceleration describes the rate of change of both the magnitude and the direction of velocity. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Acceleration has the dimensions L T -2 . In SI units, acceleration is measured in meters per second per second (m/s 2 ). In common speech, the term acceleration is used for an increase in spee

CHARGE

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics. Charges are associated with conserved quantum numbers. Formal definition More abstractly, a charge is any generator of a continuous symmetry of the physical system under study. When a physical system has a symmetry of some sort, Noether's theorem implies the existence of a conserved current. The thing that "flows" in the current i

PRISM

A prism is a special piece of glass, crystal, or plastic that bends light. The light bends (or refracts ) because it moves slower in the glass, crystal or plastic than it does in air. If different colors of light move at different speeds, each color bends a different amount. This splits the light into lots of different colors called a spectrum. This spectrum has the same colors as a rainbow does. Rainbows are also made by bending light. They happen when light is bent by tiny drops of water floa

GALVONOMETER

D'Arsonval galvanometer movement. A galvanometer is a type of ammeter: an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. It is an analog electromechanical transducer that produces a rotary deflection, through a limited arc, in response to electric current flowing through its coil. The term has been expanded to include uses of the same mechanism in recording, positioning, and servomechanism equipment. History Deflection of a magnetic compass needle by current in a wire was first de

CLOCK

A clock is an instrument used to indicate, keep, and co-ordinate time. The word clock is derived ultimately (viaDutch, Northern French, and Medieval Latin) from the Celticwords clagan and clocca meaning "bell". A silent instrument missing such a mechanism has traditionally been known as a timepiece . [ 1 ] In general usage today a "clock" refers to any device for measuring and displaying the time. Watches and other timepieces that can be carried on one's person are often distinguished from

Photon

In physics, a photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic interaction and the basic unit of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation. It is also the force carrier for the electromagnetic force . The effects of this force are easily observable at both the microscopic and macroscopic level, because the photon has no rest mass ; this allows for interactions at long distances. Like all elementary particles, photons are governed by quantum mechanics and will ex

Motion sensor

A motion sensor is a sensor device. It is used for studying motions. It is connected to a data-logger. The data-logger is connected to a computer. The computer runs a data-logging program. The computer is connected to power, and a security system. Motion sensors have many uses including security.







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