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Harmonic oscillator

In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system which, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F , proportional to the displacement, x according to Hooke's law: where k is a positive constant. If F is the only force acting on the system, the system is called a simple harmonic oscillator , and it undergoes simple harmonic motion: sinusoidal oscillations about the equilibrium point, with a constant amplitude and a constant frequency (which does n

Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics, directly relating the forces acting on a body to the motion of the body. They were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica , first published on July 5, 1687. [ 1 ] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. [ 2 ] For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion,


In physics and engineering, kinetics is a term for the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the relationship between the motion of bodies and its causes, namely forces and mass. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Since the mid-20th century, the term "dynamics" (or "analytical dynamics") has largely superseded "kinetics" in physics text books [ 4 ] ; the term "kinetics" is still used in engineering. For example, according to Rao et al The term kinetics is also used in a sense akin to chemical kin


Energy is a word with more than one meaning. Energy broadly means the capacity of something, a person, an animal or a physical system to do work and produce change. It can refer to the ability for someone to act or speak in a lively and vigorous way. It is used in science to describe how much potential a physical system has to change. It may also be used in economics to describe the part of the market where energy itself is harnessed and sold to consumers. Energy in Science Energy is something


In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not known to be made up of smaller particles. If an elementary particle truly has no substructure, then it is one of the basic building blocks of the universe from which all other particles are made. In the Standard Model, the quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons are elementary particles.[1][2] Historically, the hadrons (mesons and baryons such as the proton and neutron)

Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics , an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid . The term "adiabatic" literally means impassable (from Greek ἀ-d?ὰ-ßaῖ?e??, not-through-to pass), corresponding here to an absence of heat transfer . Conversely, a process that involves heat transfer (addition or loss of heat to the surroundings) is generally called diabatic. For example, an adiabatic boundary is a boundary

Physical system

Physical System (example) In physics the word system has a technical meaning, namely, it is the portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis. Everything outside the system is known as the environment, which in analysis is ignored except for its effects on the system. The cut between system and environment is a free choice, generally made to simplify the analysis as much as possible. An isolated system is one which has negligible interaction with its environment. Often a system in this s


In classical mechanics, an impulse (abbreviated I or J ) is defined as the integral of a force with respect to time. When a force is applied to a rigid body it changes the momentum of that body. A small force applied for a long time can produce the same momentum change as a large force applied briefly, because it is the product of the force and the time for which it is applied that is important. The impulse is equal to the change of momentum.


The group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the wave's amplitudes — known as the modulation or envelope of the wave — propagates through space. For example, imagine what happens if a stone is thrown into the middle of a very still pond. When the stone hits the surface of the water, a circular pattern of waves appears. It soon turns into a circular ring of waves with a quiescent center. The ever expanding ring of waves is the wave group , within which one can


An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of an electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current ceases Invention and history British electrician William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet in 1825. The first electromagnet was a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that was wrapped with a loosely wound coil of several turns. When a current was passed through the coil, the electromagnet became magnetized and when the current was stopped, t


Thermodynamics (from the Greek ?e?µ?, therme, meaning "heat" and d??aµ??, dynamis, meaning "power") is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. [1] [2] Roughly, heat means "energy in transit" and dynamics relates to "movement"; thus, in essence thermodynamics studies the movement of energy and how energy instills movement. Histo

Thermodynamic free energy

In thermodynamics, the term thermodynamic free energy refers to the amount of work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. It is a subtraction of the entropy of a system multiplied by a reference temperature (giving the "unusable energy") from the total energy, yielding a thermodynamic state function which represents the "useful energy". Overview In short, free energy is that portion of any First-Law energy that is available for doing thermodynamic work;


This article is about the physical quantity. For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). Forces are often described as pushes or pulls. They can be due to phenomena such as gravity, magnetism, or anything else that causes a mass to accelerate. Classical mechanics Newton's Second Law History of ... Fundamental concepts Space · Time · Mass · Force Energy · Momentum Formulations Newtonian mechanics Lagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Branches Applied mechanics Celestial mechanics Contin


In physics and thermodynamics, heat is the process of energy transfer from one body or system due to thermal contact, which in turn is defined as an energy transfer to a body in any other way than due to work performed on the body. [ 1 ] When an infinitesimal amount of heat dQ is transferred to a body in thermal equilibrium at absolute temperature T in a reversible way, then it is given by the quantity TdS , where S is the entropy of the body. A related term is thermal energy, loosely defined a

Cycle (music)

In music a cycle is a section which is repeated or repeatable indefinitely, with the end of a preceding repetition leading to the beginning of a succeeding repetition. Cycles may be melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, or based on some other musical dimension. Cycles may begin at any point in a composition or in relation to another cycle, contain or consist of cycles, and may be varied upon repetition. Melodic and harmonic cycles A repeated melodic pattern, or ostinato, can form a cycle. This can happe

Halogen lamp

A halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp in which a tungsten filament is sealed into a compact transparent envelope filled with an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine. The combination of the halogen gas and the tungsten filament produces a chemical reaction known as a halogen cycle (see below) that increases the lifetime of the bulb and prevents its darkening by redepositing tungsten from the inside of the bulb back onto the filament. The halogen lamp can operate i


Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. The magnetic field is produced by the motion of electric charges, i.e. electric current. The magnetic field causes the magnetic force associated with magnets. While preparing for an evening lecture on 21 April 1820, Hans Christian Ørsted developed an experiment which provided e


Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and flu

Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic induction is the production of voltage across a conductor situated in a changing magnetic field or a conductor moving through a stationary magnetic field. Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of the induction phenomenon in 1831 though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829 [ citation needed ] . Around 1830 [ 1 ] to 1832 [ 2 ] Joseph Henry made a similar discovery, but did not publish his findings until later. Technical detai


In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. Like energy, it is a scalar quantity, with SI units of joules. Heat conduction is not considered to be a form of work, since there is no macroscopically measurable force, only microscopic forces occurring in atomic collisions. In the 1830s, the French mathematician Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis coined the term work for the product of force and distance. [1] Positive and negative signs of work indicate whether the object exer

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