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In physics, a magnetic monopole is a hypothetical particle that is a magnet with only one pole (see Maxwell's equations for more on magnetic poles). In more technical terms, it would have a net "magnetic charge". Modern interest in the concept stems from particle theories, notably Grand Unified Theories and superstring theories, which predict their existence. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The classical theory of magnetic charge is as old as Maxwell's equations, but is considered much less important or in


In physics, a fundamental interaction or fundamental force is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. Overview In the conceptual model of fundamental interactions, matter consists of fermions, which carry properties called charges and spin 1/2 (intrinsic angular momentum ±ℏ/2, where ℏ is reduced Planck's constant). They attract or repel each other by exchanging bosons. The interaction of any pair of

The Story-Line of Light and Matter

I've tried not to make Light and Matter a traditional "kitchen sink" or "march through the topics" book. It has a coherent storyline built around light and matter: how they behave, how they are different from each other, and, at the end of the day, how they turn out to be similar in some very bizarre ways. 1 Newtonian Physics Matter moves at constant speed in a straight line unless a force acts on it. (This seems intuitively wrong only because we tend to forget the role of friction forces.)

Compton scattering

In physics, Compton scattering is a type of scattering that X-rays and gamma rays undergo in matter. The inelastic scattering of photons in matter results in a decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of an X-ray or gamma ray photon, called the Compton effect . Part of the energy of the X/gamma ray is transferred to a scattering electron, which recoils and is ejected from its atom (which becomes ionized), and the rest of the energy is taken by the scattered, "degraded" photon. Inverse Compto

Thermodynamic free energy

In thermodynamics, the term thermodynamic free energy refers to the amount of work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. It is a subtraction of the entropy of a system multiplied by a reference temperature (giving the "unusable energy") from the total energy, yielding a thermodynamic state function which represents the "useful energy". Overview In short, free energy is that portion of any First-Law energy that is available for doing thermodynamic work;


A pulley is something that is used to lift heavy objects. It is a kind of simple machine. It is sometimes called a block and tackle. Pulleys are usually used in sets designed to make the amount of force needed to lift something smaller. Types of pulleys Fixed A fixed or class 1 pulley has an axle that is "fixed" or anchored in place. A fixed pulley is used to redirect the force in a rope (called a belt when it goes in a full circle). A fixed pulley has a mechanical advantage of 1. Movable A mov


Biophysics (also biological physics ) is an interdisciplinary science that employs and develops theories and methods of the physical sciences for the investigation of biological systems. Studies included under the umbrella of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, agrophysics and systems biology. Molecular biophysics typic


Pressure (symbol: p or P ) is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure. Definition Pressure is an effect which occurs when a force is applied on a surface. The symbol of pressure is p [ citation needed ] or P . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Formula Conjugate variables of thermodynamics Pressure Volume (Stress) (Strain) Temperature Entropy Chem. potential Particle no. Mathematicall

Solid mechanics

Solid mechanics is the branch of mechanics, physics, and mathematics that concerns the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e.g., external forces, temperature changes, applied displacements, etc.). It is part of a broader study known as continuum mechanics. One of the most common practical applications of solid mechanics is the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. Solid mechanics extensively uses tensors to describe stresses, strains, and the relationship between them. Response models A m


In particle physics, antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter, where antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. For example, a positron (also called "antielectron") and an antiproton can form an antihydrogen atom in the same way that an electron and a proton form a normal matter hydrogen atom. Furthermore, mixing matter and antimatter can lead to the annihilation of both in the same way that mixing antipar


In physics and thermodynamics, heat is the process of energy transfer from one body or system due to thermal contact, which in turn is defined as an energy transfer to a body in any other way than due to work performed on the body. [ 1 ] When an infinitesimal amount of heat dQ is transferred to a body in thermal equilibrium at absolute temperature T in a reversible way, then it is given by the quantity TdS , where S is the entropy of the body. A related term is thermal energy, loosely defined a

Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity , or simply relativity , generally refers specifically to two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. However, the word "relativity" is sometimes used in reference to Galilean invariance. The term "theory of relativity" was coined by Max Planck in 1908 to emphasize how special relativity (and later, general relativity) uses the principle of relativity. Special relativity Special relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime. It was


In physics, the world line of an object is the unique path of that object as it travels through 4-dimensional spacetime. The concept of "world line" is distinguished from the concept of "orbit" or "trajectory" (such as an orbit in space or a trajectory of a truck on a road map) by the time dimension, and typically encompasses a large area of spacetime wherein perceptually straight paths are recalculated to show their (relatively) more absolute position states — to reveal the nature of special r


Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave (through fluids as a compression wave, and through solids as both compression and shear waves). Sound is further characterized by the generic properties of waves, which are frequency, wavelength, period, amplitude, and speed. Humans perceive sound by the sense of hearing. By sound, we commonly mean the vibrations that travel through air and are audible to people. However, scientists and engineers use a wider de


Inertia is the quality of an object to keep the same velocity (speed) unless it is acted upon by an outside force. Inertia is also called Sir Isaac Newton's First Law of Motion. The First Law of Motion says that: Every body perseveres in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight ahead, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by forces impressed. [Cohen & Whitman 1999 translation] This basically means: Every object stays at rest or stays moving at the same spee

Cycle (music)

In music a cycle is a section which is repeated or repeatable indefinitely, with the end of a preceding repetition leading to the beginning of a succeeding repetition. Cycles may be melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, or based on some other musical dimension. Cycles may begin at any point in a composition or in relation to another cycle, contain or consist of cycles, and may be varied upon repetition. Melodic and harmonic cycles A repeated melodic pattern, or ostinato, can form a cycle. This can happe


The gravity of Earth , denoted g , refers to the acceleration that the Earth imparts to objects on or near its surface. In SI units this acceleration is measured in metres per second per second (in symbols, m/s 2 or m·s -2 ) or in newtons per kilogram (N/kg or N·kg -1 ). It has an approximate value of 9.81 m/s 2 , which means that, ignoring air resistance, the speed of an object falling freely near the Earth's surface increases by about 9.81 metres per second every second. This quantity is


Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. At any point on a speed-time graph, the magnitude of the acceleration is given by the gradient of the tangent to the curve at that point. In kinematics, acceleration is defined as the first derivative of velocity with respect to time (that is, the rate of change of velocity), or equivalently as the second derivative of position. It is a vector quantity with dimension L T-2. In SI units, acceleration is measured in metres per second squared (m/s2).

Drift velocity

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field. In general, an electron will rattle around in a conductor at the Fermi velocity randomly. An applied electric field will give this random motion a small net velocity in one direction In a semiconductor, the two main carrier scattering mechanisms are ionized impurity scattering and lattice scattering. Because current is proportional to drift velocity, which is, in turn, proportional

Particle physics

Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Electrically charged particles are discernible by the curves they trace in the detector's magnetic field. Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. It is also called "high energy physics", because many elementary particles do n

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