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Newton's law of universal gravitation

Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies of question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses), then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. In the limit, as the component point masses become "infinitely small", this entails integrating the force (in vector form, see below) over the extents of the two bodies. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symme


A wave is a type of change that moves from one place to another. Examples of Waves Waves are found everywhere in the natural world. Examples of waves: sound light [1] water waves earthquake waves Properties of Waves Waves have properties that can be measured. All waves are made by adding sine waves. Here is a picture of a sine wave: Sine waves can be measured too. The shape of a sine wave is given by its amplitude, phase, wavelength and frequency. The speed that the sine wave moves can be measu


Mass is a fundamental concept in physics, roughly corresponding to the intuitive idea of how much matter there is in an object. Mass is a central concept of classical mechanics and related subjects, and there are several definitions of mass within the framework of relativistic kinematics (see mass in special relativity and mass in General Relativity). In the theory of relativity, the quantity invariant mass, which in concept is close to the classical idea of mass, does not vary between single o


Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. At any point on a speed-time graph, the magnitude of the acceleration is given by the gradient of the tangent to the curve at that point. In kinematics, acceleration is defined as the first derivative of velocity with respect to time (that is, the rate of change of velocity), or equivalently as the second derivative of position. It is a vector quantity with dimension L T-2. In SI units, acceleration is measured in metres per second squared (m/s2).


Pressure (symbol: p or P ) is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure. Definition Pressure is an effect which occurs when a force is applied on a surface. The symbol of pressure is p [ citation needed ] or P . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Formula Conjugate variables of thermodynamics Pressure Volume (Stress) (Strain) Temperature Entropy Chem. potential Particle no. Mathematicall


In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert attractive or repulsive forces on other materials. Some well known materials that exhibit easily detectable magnetic properties (called magnets) are nickel, iron and their alloys; however, all materials are influenced to greater or lesser degree by the presence of a magnetic field. Magnetism also has other manifestations in physics, particularly as one of the two components of electromagnetic waves such as light. History Ari


Magnetization is a property of some materials (e.g. magnets) that describes to what extent they are affected by magnetic fields, and also determines the magnetic field that the material itself creates. Magnetization is defined as the amount of magnetic moment per unit volume. The origin of the magnetic moments that create the magnetization can be either microscopic electric currents corresponding to the motion of electrons in atoms, or the spin of the electrons. In some materials (e.g., ferroma


Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation. Viscous materials, like honey, resist shear flow and strain linearly with time when a stress is applied. Elastic materials strain instantaneously when stretched and just as quickly return to their original state once the stress is removed. Viscoelastic materials have elements of both of these properties and, as such, exhibit time dependent strain. Whereas elasticity is

Dynamics (mechanics)

In the field of physics, the study of the causes of motion and changes in motion is dynamics . In other words the study of forces and why objects are in motion. Dynamics includes the study of the effect of torques on motion. These are in contrast to Kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of objects without consideration of the causes leading to the motion. Generally speaking, researchers involved in dynamics study how a physical system might develop or alter ove

Active laser medium

The active laser medium or gain medium is the source of optical gain within a laser. The gain results from the stimulated emission of electronic or molecular transitions to a lower energy state from a higher energy state previously populated by a pump source. Examples of active laser media include: Certain crystals, typically doped with rare-earth ions (e.g. neodymium, ytterbium, or erbium) or transition metal ions (titanium or chromium); most often yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), yttrium ortho


The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume: Different materials usually have different densities, so density is an important concept regarding buoyancy, metal purity and packaging. In some cases density is expressed as the dimensionless quantities specific gravity or relative density, in which case it is expressed in multiples of the density of some other standard material, usually water or air. History In a well known issue, Archimedes were given the task of determining w

ntensive and extensive properties

In the physical sciences, an intensive property (also called a bulk property ), is a physical property of a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system: it is scale invariant . By contrast, an extensive property of a system does depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. (see: examples) Some intensive properties, such as viscosity, are empirical macroscopic quantities and are not relevant to extremely small systems. For example,


Matter is a general term for the substance of which all physical objects are made. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles which have mass. A common way of defining matter is as anything that has mass and occupies volume. [ 3 ] In practice however there is no single correct scientific meaning of "matter," as different fields use the term in different and sometimes incompatible ways. For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact natur


In physics, the action is a particular quantity in a physical system that can be used to describe its operation. Action is an alternative to differential equations. The action is not necessarily the same for different types of systems. The action yields the same results as using differential equations. Action only requires the states of the physical variable to be specified at two points, called the initial and final states. The values of the physical variable at all intermediate points may the


Iron ( / ˈ aɪ . ər n / or / ˈ aɪər n / ) is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (Latin: ferrum ) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element in the whole planet Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core, and it is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. It is produced in abundance as a result of fusion in high-mass stars, where the production of nickel-56 (which decays to iron) i

Solid mechanics

Solid mechanics is the branch of mechanics, physics, and mathematics that concerns the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e.g., external forces, temperature changes, applied displacements, etc.). It is part of a broader study known as continuum mechanics. One of the most common practical applications of solid mechanics is the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation . Solid mechanics extensively uses tensors to describe stresses, strains, and the relationship between them. Response models A

Classical Machanics

Classical mechanics (also called Newtonian mechanics) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. It produces very accurate results within these domains, and is one of the oldest and largest subjects in science and technology. Besides this, many related specialties exist, dealing with gases, liquids, and solids, and so on. Classical mechanics is enhanced by sp


THE LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR This is a resistor which has a resistance that changes with the amount of LIGHT that falls on It. In the DARK its resistance is LARGE (millions of ohms), in the LIGHT its resistance is SMALL (tens of ohms). Very little current will flow through It In the dark. THE THERMISTOR This is a type resistor which has a resistance that changes with TEMPERATURE. In the COLD its resistance is LARGE (thousands of ohms), in the HEAT its resistance is SMALL (tens of ohms). Very li


In physics, circular motion is rotation along a circle: a circular path or a circular orbit. It can be uniform, that is, with constant angular rate of rotation, or non-uniform, that is, with a changing rate of rotation. The rotation around a fixed axis of a three-dimensional body involves circular motion of its parts. The equations describing circular motion of an object do not take size or geometry into account, rather, the motion of a point mass in a plane is assumed. In practice, the center


In physics and thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one place in a body or thermodynamic system to another place, or beyond the boundary of one system to another one due to thermal contact even when the systems are at different temperatures. It is also often described as the process of transfer of energy between physical entities. In this description, it is an energy transfer to the body in any other way than due to work performed on the body. [ 1 ] In engineering, the discipline of

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