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Astrophysics (Greek: Astro - meaning "star", and Greek: physis – fύs?? - meaning "nature") is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as galaxies, stars, planets, exoplanets , and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. The study of cosmology addresses questions of astrophysics at scales much larger than the size of particular


Newton's law of universal gravitation by attractions inversely proportional to the squares of the distances between massive bodies is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. [1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"), first published on 5 July 1687. In modern language, the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every other point

Hot cathode

In vacuum tubes, a hot cathode is a cathode electrode which emits electrons due to thermionic emission. In the accelerator community, these are referred to as thermionic cathodes. ( Cf. cold cathodes, where field electron emission is used and which do not require heating.) The heating element is usually an electrical filament . Hot cathodes typically achieve much higher power density than cold cathodes, emitting significantly more electrons from the same surface area. Hot cathodes are the main


Biophysics (also biological physics ) is an interdisciplinary science that employs and develops theories and methods of the physical sciences for the investigation of biological systems. Studies included under the umbrella of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, agrophysics and systems biology. Molecular biophysics typic


In kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity. The average speed of an object in an interval of time is the distance traveled by the object divided by the duration of the interval; the instantaneous speed is the limit of the average speed as the duration of the time interval approaches zero . Like velocity, speed has the dimensions of a length divided by a time; the SI unit of speed is the meter per seco


D'Arsonval galvanometer movement. A galvanometer is a type of ammeter: an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. It is an analog electromechanical transducer that produces a rotary deflection, through a limited arc, in response to electric current flowing through its coil. The term has been expanded to include uses of the same mechanism in recording, positioning, and servomechanism equipment. History Deflection of a magnetic compass needle by current in a wire was first de


Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings. The high permeability of individual iron filings causes the magnetic field to be larger at the ends of the filings. This causes individual filings to attract each other, forming elongated clusters that trace out the appearance of lines. It would not be expected that these "lines" be precisely accurate field lines for this magnet; rather, the magnetization of the iron itself would be expected to alter the field somewhat. Electromagnetism Electricity ·


Friction is the force resisting the relative lateral (tangential) motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, or material elements in contact. It is usually subdivided into several varieties: Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is also subdivided into static friction between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction (sometimes called sliding friction or dynamic friction ) between moving surfaces. Lubricated friction [ 1 ] or fluid friction [ 2


Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and flu


Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. Examples include the cell potential of cell membranes and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. It is not to be confused with bioelectromagnetics, which deals with the effect on life from external electromagnetism. Description Biological cells use bioelectricity to store metabol


Electricity (from ή?e?t??? [ electron ], "amber") is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of charge. This includes many well-known physical phenomena such as lightning, electromagnetic fields and electric currents, and is put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and electric power. These related, but distinct, concepts are better identified by more precise terms: Electric field — an effect produced by an electric charge that exerts

Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics , which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. It produces very accurate results within these domains, and is one of the oldest and largest subjects in science and technology. Besides this, many related specialties exist, dealing with gases, liquids, and solids, and so


Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws which provide relationships between the forces acting on a body and the motion of the body. They were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687). The laws form the basis for classical mechanics and Newton himself used them to explain many results concerning the motion of physical objects. In the third volume of the text, he showed that these laws of motion, combined with his law of univer


In physics, the term "moment" can refer to many different concepts: Moment of force (often just moment ) is the tendency of a force to twist or rotate an object; see the article torque for details. This is an important, basic concept in engineering and physics. (Note: In mechanical and civil engineering, "moment" and "torque" have different meanings, while in physics they are synonyms. See the discussion in the "torque" article, or the article couple (mechanics).) Moment arm is a quantity used

Magnetic flux

Magnetic flux (most often denoted as F m ), is a measure of the amount of magnetic field passing through a given surface (such as a conducting coil). The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (in derived units: volt-seconds). The CGS unit is the maxwell. Description Figure 1: The definition of surface integral relies on splitting the surface into small surface elements. Each element is associated with a vector d S of magnitude equal to the area of the element and with direction normal to the el


Inertia is the quality of an object to keep the same velocity (speed) unless it is acted upon by an outside force. Inertia is also called Sir Isaac Newton's First Law of Motion. The First Law of Motion says that: Every body perseveres in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight ahead, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by forces impressed. [Cohen & Whitman 1999 translation] This basically means: Every object stays at rest or stays moving at the same spee


The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume: Different materials usually have different densities, so density is an important concept regarding buoyancy, metal purity and packaging. In some cases density is expressed as the dimensionless quantities specific gravity or relative density, in which case it is expressed in multiples of the density of some other standard material, usually water or air. History In a well known issue, Archimedes were given the task of determining w


Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to investigate the existence and causes of psychic abilities and life after death using the scientific method. [ 1 ] Parapsychological experiments have included the use of random number generators to test for evidence of precognition and psychokinesis with both human and animal subjects [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and Ganzfeld experiments to test for extrasensory perception. [ 5 ] While the results of such experiments are regarded by some parapsychologists as hav


An early naval cannon, which is allowed to roll backwards a little when fired. Recoil, in common everyday language, is considered the backward kick or force produced by a gun when it is fired. In more precise scientific terms, this force is equal to the derivative of the backward momentum resulting when a gun is fired. The backward momentum is equal to the mass of the gun times its reverse velocity. This backward momentum is equal to the sums of the two forward momentums by the law of conservat


Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets , or are attracted to magnets. In physics, several different types of magnetism are distinguished. Ferromagnetism is the strongest type; it is the only type that can produce forces strong enough to be felt, and is responsible for the common phenomena of magnetism encountered in everyday life. One example is refrigerator magnets. The attraction between a magnet and ferromagnetic material is "th

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