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Water condenses into visible droplets after evaporating from a cup of hot tea A vapor (American spelling) or vapour (see spelling differences) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature. [ 1 ] This means that the vapor can be condensed to a liquid or to a solid by increasing its pressure, without reducing the temperature. For example, water has a critical temperature of 374°C (or 647 K) which is the highest temperature at which liquid water can exist. I

Electric charge

Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields. The interaction between a moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces. Overview Electric charge is a characteristic of some subatomic particles. It is quantized in that, when expressed in units o


Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect. A closely related term is interconnectivity, which deals with the interactions of interactions within systems: combinations of many simple interactions can lead to surprising emergent phenomena. Interaction has different tailored meanings in various sciences. All systems are related and


A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it. It was invented in 1952 by Donald A. Glaser, [ 1 ] for which he was awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics. [ 2 ] Anecdotally, Glaser was inspired by the bubbles in a glass of beer; however, in a 2006 talk, he refuted this story, saying that although beer was not the inspiration for the bubble chamber, he did experiments using b

Drift velocity

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field. In general, an electron will rattle around in a conductor at the Fermi velocity randomly. An applied electric field will give this random motion a small net velocity in one direction In a semiconductor, the two main carrier scattering mechanisms are ionized impurity scattering and lattice scattering. Because current is proportional to drift velocity, which is, in turn, proportional


Iron ( / ˈ aɪ . ər n / or / ˈ aɪər n / ) is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (Latin: ferrum ) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element in the whole planet Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core, and it is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. It is produced in abundance as a result of fusion in high-mass stars, where the production of nickel-56 (which decays to iron) i


Pressure (the symbol: P ) is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure. Definition Pressure is an effect which occurs when a force is applied on a surface. Pressure is the amount of force acting on a unit area. The symbol of pressure is P . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Formula Conjugate variables of thermodynamics Pressure Volume (Stress) (Strain) Temperature Entropy Chemical pote


Potential energy can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. This energy can be released or converted into other forms of energy, including kinetic energy. It is called potential energy because it has the potential to change the states of objects in the system when the energy is released. Potential energy exists when there is a force that tends to pull an object back towards some original position when the object is displaced. This force is often called a restoring force. For e


Newton's law of universal gravitation by attractions inversely proportional to the squares of the distances between massive bodies is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. [1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"), first published on 5 July 1687. In modern language, the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every other point

Continuity equation

A continuity equation in physics is a differential equation that describes the transport of some kind of conserved quantity. Since mass, energy, momentum, electric charge and other natural quantities are conserved, a vast variety of physics may be described with continuity equations. Continuity equations are the (stronger) local form of conservation laws. All the examples of continuity equations below express the same idea, which is roughly that: the total amount (of the conserved quantity) ins

The Method of Mechanical Theorems

The Method of Mechanical Theorems is a work by Archimedes which contains the first attested explicit use of infinitesimals. The work was lost, but was rediscovered in the celebrated Archimedes Palimpsest. The palimpsest includes Archimedes' account of the "mechanical method", so called because it relies on the law of the lever, which was first demonstrated by Archimedes, and of the center of gravity, which he had found for many special cases. Archimedes did not admit infinitesimals as part


When viewing at a certain angle, the straw appears to bend, due to refraction of light as it moves into the air. Refraction is the change in direction of a wave, caused by the change in the wave's speed. Examples of waves include sound waves and light waves. Refraction is seen most often when a wave passes from a medium to a different medium. Different types of medium include air and water. When a wave passes from one medium to another medium, the wave will change its speed and its directio


In physics, force is action or agency that causes a body of mass m to accelerate. It may be experienced as a lift, a push, or a pull. The acceleration of the body is proportional to the vector sum of all forces acting on it (known as net force or resultant force). In an extended body, force may also cause rotation, deformation, or an increase in pressure for the body. Rotational effects are determined by the torques, while deformation and pressure are determined by the stresses that the forces


The group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the wave's amplitudes — known as the modulation or envelope of the wave — propagates through space. For example, imagine what happens if a stone is thrown into the middle of a very still pond. When the stone hits the surface of the water, a circular pattern of waves appears. It soon turns into a circular ring of waves with a quiescent center. The ever expanding ring of waves is the wave group , within which one can


In physics, temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold; something that feels hotter generally has the higher temperature. Temperature is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. If no net heat flow occurs between two objects, the objects have the same temperature; otherwise heat flows from the hotter object to the colder object. This is a consequence of the laws of thermodynamics. On the microscopic scale, temperature can be define


The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol of density is ? 1. Formula Mathematically: where: (rho) is the density, is the mass, is the volume. Different materials usually have different densities, so density is an important concept regarding buoyancy, metal purity and packaging. In some cases density is expressed as the dimensionless quantities specific gravity (SG) or relative density (RD), in which case it is expressed in multiples of the density of some othe

Conduction (heat)

In heat transfer, conduction (or heat conduction ) is the transfer of thermal energy between neighboring molecules in a substance due to a temperature gradient. It always takes place from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and acts to equalize temperature differences. Conduction takes place in all forms of matter, viz. solids, liquids, gases and plasmas, but does not require any bulk motion of matter. In solids, it is due to the combination of vibrations of the mol


A conservative force is a force with the property that the work done in moving a particle between two points is independent of the path taken. [ 1 ] Equivalently, if a particle travels in a closed loop, the net work done (the sum of the force acting along the path multiplied by the distance travelled) by a conservative force is zero. [ 2 ] It is possible to define a numerical value of potential at every point in space for a conservative force. When an object moves from one location to another,


The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. The ground state of a quantum field theory is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum. If more than one ground state exists, they are said to be degenerate. Many systems have degenerate ground states, such as the hydrogen atom. It turns out that degeneracy occurs

Solid mechanics

Solid mechanics is the branch of mechanics, physics, and mathematics that concerns the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e.g., external forces, temperature changes, applied displacements, etc.). It is part of a broader study known as continuum mechanics. One of the most common practical applications of solid mechanics is the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. Solid mechanics extensively uses tensors to describe stresses, strains, and the relationship between them. Response models A m

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