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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3 . It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. In 2006, worldwide production was estimated at 146.5 million ton


Potassium (pronounced /pəˈtæsiəm/ ) is a chemical element . It has the symbol K ( Latin : kalium , from Arabic : القَلْيَه ? al qalya “plant ashes”, cf. Alkali from the same root), atomic number 19, and atomic mass 39.0983. The name "potassium" comes from the word "potash", as potassium was first isolated from potash . Potassium is a soft silvery-white metallic alkali metal that occurs naturally bound to other elements in seaw


In chemistry, hydroxide is the name for the diatomic anion OH - , consisting of covalently bonded oxygen and hydrogen atoms, usually derived from the dissociation of abase. It is one of the simplest and most pervasive diatomic ions known. Inorganic compounds that contain the hydroxyl group are referred to as hydroxides. Alkali metal (Li + , Na + , K + ) and alkaline earth (Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ ) salts containing hydroxide are common bases. Common hydroxides include Sodium hydroxide, NaOH Potas


Sulfur or sulphur (pronounced /ˈsʌlfɚ/ , see spelling below) is the chemical element that has the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used

Chemical equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium is a state where all chemical reactions proceed at the same rate as their reverses, so there is no change in the proportions of the various compounds. Without energy input chemical reactions always proceed towards equilibrium. For a reaction k A + m B <-> n C + p D, equilibrium occurs when [A] k [B] m / [C] n [D] p = K where K is a constant called the equilibrium constant. The left side of the equation is called the action and is denoted Q for a generic state (not necessari


Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. With relation to chemical terminology, aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes, alkanes, alkenes and alkyne-based compounds composed entirely of carbon or hydrogen are referred to as "Pure" hydrocarbons, whereas other hydrocarbons w


Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to muscle. Creatine was identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul discovered it as a component of skeletal muscle, which he later named creatine after the Greek word for flesh, Kreas . Biosynthesis In humans and animals, approximately half of stored creatine originates from food (mainly from fresh meat). Since vegetables do not contain creatine, vegetarians show lower levels of muscle cre

Electrochemical cell

A demonstration electrochemical cell setup resembling the Daniell cell. The two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge carrying ions between them. Electrons flow in the external circuit. An electrochemical cell is a device used for generating an electromotive force (voltage) and current from chemical reactions. The current is caused by the reactions releasing and accepting electrons at the different ends of a conductor. A common example of an electrochemical cell is a standard 1.5-volt battery.


Chlorine (IPA: /ˈklɔəriːn/ , Greek: ????ó? chloros , meaning "pale green"), is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is a halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17 (formerly VIIa or VIIb). As the chloride ion, which is part of common salt and other compounds, it is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of life, including humans. In its common elemental form (Cl 2 or "dichlorine") under standard conditions, it is a pale green gas about 2


Chemical structure of an acetyl group bound to the remainder R of a molecule. In organic chemistry, acetyl (ethanoyl), is a functional group, the acyl of acetic acid, with chemical formula -COCH3. It is sometimes abbreviated as Ac (not to be confused with the element actinium). The acetyl radical contains a methyl group single-bonded to a carbonyl. The carbon of the carbonyl has a lone electron available, with which it forms a chemical bond to the remainder R of the molecule. The acetyl radical


In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. [ 1 ] Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups , called hydrocarbyls . [ 2 ] Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons. The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally occur in crude oil , where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, wh


Diagram of the carbon cycle. The black numbers indicate how much carbon is stored in various reservoirs, in billions of tons ("GtC" stands for GigaTons of Carbon and figures are circa 2004). The purple numbers indicate how much carbon moves between reservoirs each year. The sediments, as defined in this diagram, do not include the ~70 million GtC of carbonate rock and kerogen. The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere


In chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept protons. This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. Alternate definitions of bases include electron pair donors (Lewis), as sources of hydroxide anions (Arrhenius) and can be (commonly) thought of as any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH higher than 7.0. Examples of simple bases are sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Bases can be thought of as the chemi

Ammonium nitrate

The chemical compound ammonium nitrate , the nitrate of ammonia with the chemical formula NH 4 NO 3 , is a white crystalline solid at room temperature and standard pressure. It is commonly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer, and it has also been used as an oxidizing agent in explosives, including improvised explosive devices. It is the main component of ANFO, a very popular explosive. Ammonium nitrate is used in instant cold packs, as hydrating the salt is an endothermic process.

Alkane Reactions

The alkanes and cycloalkanes, with the exception of cyclopropane, are probably the least chemically reactive class of organic compounds. Despite their relative inertness, alkanes undergo several important reactions that are discussed in the following section. 1. Combustion The combustion of carbon compounds, especially hydrocarbons, has been the most important source of heat energy for human civilizations throughout recorded history. The practical importance of this reaction cannot be denied, b


Acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and ß-ketopropane) is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid. It is the simplest example of the ketones. Acetone is miscible with water, ethanol, ether, etc., and itself serves as an important solvent. The most familiar household use of acetone is as the active ingredient in nail polish remover. Acetone is also used to make plastic, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals. In addition to being manufactured as a chemical, ace

Liothyronine sodium

Liothyronine sodium is the L-isomer of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), a form of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. It is marketed under the brand name Cytomel (or Tertroxin in Australia). Pharmacology Liothyronine is the most potent form of thyroid hormone. As such, it acts on the body to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. The thyroid hormones are ess


diagram of modern burette A burette (also buret) is a vertical cylindrical piece of laboratory glassware with a volumetric graduation on its full length and a precision tap, or stopcock, on the bottom. It is used to dispense known amounts of a liquid reagent in experiments for which such precision is necessary, such as a titration experiment. Burettes are extremely accurate: class A burettes are accurate to ±0.05 cm3. Using a burette The precision of a burette makes careful measurement with a b


Nitric acid ( HNO 3 ), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre , is a highly corrosive and toxic strong acid . Colorless when pure, older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen . If the solution contains more than 86% nitric acid, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid . Depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present, fuming nitric acid is further characterized as white fuming nitric acid or red fuming nitric acid , at concentrations abov


Acid rain is rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic. It has harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. Acid rain is mostly caused by human emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds which react in the atmosphere to produce acids. In recent years, many governments have introduced laws to reduce these emissions. Definition "Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog and cloudwater, dew) and dry (acidifying

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