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INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of a mineral, not biological, origin. Complementarily, most organic compounds are traditionally viewed as being of biological origin. Over the past century, the precise classification of inorganic vs organic compounds has become less important to scientists, primarily because the majority of known compounds are synthetic and not of natural origin. Furthermore, most compounds considered the purview of modern inorganic chemistry contain orga

Staurolite

Staurolite is a red brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate mineral with a white streak. Properties It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, has a Mohs hardness of 7 to 7.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: (Fe,Mg,Zn) 2 Al 9 (Si,Al) 4 O 20 (OH) 4 . Iron,magnesium and zinc occur in variable ratios. Staurolite fromMadagascar A special property of staurolite is that it often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape. In handsamples, macroscopically visible staurolite crystal

SULFUR DIOXIDE

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide ) is the chemical compound with the formula SO 2 . SO 2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. It is also used to protect wine fron dioxygen and bacteria.

Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry. Key concepts The structure of the ionic framew

Electrochemical cell

A demonstration electrochemical cell setup resembling the Daniell cell. The two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge carrying ions between them. Electrons flow in the external circuit. An electrochemical cell is a device used for creating an electron differential between two electrode ends and these ends are placed together to form electrolyte. The current is caused by the reactions releasing and accepting electrons at the different ends of a conductor. A common example of an electrochemical

SODIUM CHLORIDE

Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. As the main ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. In one gram of sodium chloride, there are approximately 0.3933 grams of sodium, and 0.6067 g of chlorine Production and use Salt is currently produced

Solvation

Solvation , also sometimes called dissolution, is the process of attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. As ions dissolve in a solvent they spread out and become surrounded by solvent molecules. Distinction between solvation, dissolution and solubility By an IUPAC definition [ 1 ] , solvation is an interaction of a solute with the solvent, which leads to stabilization of the solute species in the solution. One may also refer to the solvated state

Isomer

In chemistry, isomers (Greek isos = "equal", méros = "part") are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae. [ 1 ] Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties unless they also have the same functional groups. This should not be confused with a nuclear isomer, which involves a nucleus at different states of excitement. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, geometrical isomers, et cetera Isomerism A simple example of

Ammonium perchlorate

Ammonium perchlorate is an inorganic compound with the formula NH 4 ClO 4 . It is the salt of perchloric acid and ammonium hydroxide. All perchlorates are potentially powerful oxidizers, but ammonium perchlorate is especially labile. Production It is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid, and is the driver behind the industrial production of perchloric acid. It also can be prepared by treatment of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate. This process exploits the fact that the

VALENCE

In chemistry, valence , also known as valency or valency number , is a measure of the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element. Over the last century, the concept of valence evolved into a range of approaches for describing the chemical bond, including Lewis structures (1916), valence bond theory (1927), molecular orbitals (1928), valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (1958) and all the advanced methods of quantum chemistry. History The etymology of the word "valen

Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO 2 . One of several nitrogen oxides, NO 2 is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid, millions of tons of which are produced each year. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent air pollutant. Nitrogen dioxide is a paramagnetic bent molecule with C 2v point group symmetry. Occurrence NO 2 exists in equilibrium with dinitrogen tetroxide ( N 2 O 4 ): 2 NO 2 N 2 O 4 The equ

CARBOHYDRATE

Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. It is composed of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by a ß-1-4 glycosidic linkage. Carbohydrates (from 'hydrates of carbon') or saccharides (Greek sά??a??? meaning "sugar") are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules, which also include proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural comp

Potassium

Potassium ( / p ɵ ˈ t æ s i əm / po-TAS-ee-əm ) is the chemical element with the symbol K (Neo-Latin kalium ), atomic number 19, and atomic mass 39.098. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white metallic alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction. Potassium and sodium are alkali metals and are chemically very similar. For this reason, historically their salts were not

Sodium hypochlorite

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. Production Hypochlorite was first produced in 1789 by Claude Louis Berthollet in his laboratory on the quay Javel in Paris, France, by passing chlorine gas through a solution of sodium carbonate. The resulting liquid, known as " Eau de Javel " ("Javel water"), was a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite. However, thi

LIQUID NITROGEN

Liquid nitrogen (liquid density at the triple point is 0.707 g/mL) is the liquid produced industrially in large quantities by fractional distillation of liquid air and is often referred to by the abbreviation, LN 2 . It is pure nitrogen, in a liquid state. Liquid nitrogen has the UN number 1977. At atmospheric pressure, liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K (-196 °C; -321 °F), and is a cryogenic fluid which can cause rapid frostbite on contact with living tissue. It has a dielectric constant of 1.4. [

Gases and gas laws

Gases and their Properties A gas is one of the states of matter. As such, it has unique physical properties. Gases assume the volume and the shape of their container and as such mix evenly and completely. In addition, a gas is the most compressible state of matter (having the lowest density). The individual molecules which make up a gas can make collisions with the edges of their containers. As such, they exert a force on the container. We call this force the pressure of a gas. Gasses are the o

Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide ) is the chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. It often results from the bacterial break down of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers (anaerobic digestion). It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters. The body produces small amounts of H 2 S and uses it as a signaling molecule. Properties Hydrogen s

BIOCHEMISTRY

Biochemistry (from Greek: ßί?? , bios, "life" and Egyptian kēme, "earth"[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules. Chemical biology aims to answer many questions arising from biochemistry by using tools developed within chemical synthesis. Although there are a vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and l

Electrochemical cell

A demonstration electrochemical cell setup resembling the Daniell cell. The two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge carrying ions between them. Electrons flow in the external circuit. An electrochemical cell is a device used for generating an electromotive force (voltage) and current from chemical reactions. The current is caused by the reactions releasing and accepting electrons at the different ends of a conductor. A common example of an electrochemical cell is a standard 1.5-volt battery.

Chirality

The term chiral (pronounced /ˈkaɪrəl/ ) is used to describe an object that is non-superposable on its mirror image. Human hands are perhaps the most universally recognized example of chirality: The left hand is a non-superposable mirror image of the right hand; no matter how the two hands are oriented, it is impossible for all the major features of both hands to coincide. This difference in symmetry becomes obvious if someone attempts to shake the right hand of a person using his







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