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AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Pollutants Before flue gas

LIQUID NITROGEN

Liquid nitrogen (liquid density at the triple point is 0.707 g/mL) is the liquid produced industrially in large quantities by fractional distillation of liquid air and is often referred to by the abbreviation, LN 2 . It is pure nitrogen, in a liquid state. Liquid nitrogen has the UN number 1977. At atmospheric pressure, liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K (-196 °C; -321 °F), and is a cryogenic fluid which can cause rapid frostbite on contact with living tissue. It has a dielectric constant of 1.4. [

SULFATE

In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. Chemical properties Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) The sulfate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO 2- 4 and a molecular mass of 96.06 daltons (96.06 g/mol); it consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is very similar to that of methane, CH 4 . The sulfur atom is in the +6 oxid

HYDROCARBON

A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. Methane is part of a homologous series known as alkanes, which are forms of hydrocarbons comprised of single bonds. In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. With relation to chemical terminology, aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes, alkanes, alkenes and alkyne-based compounds composed entirely of carbon or hydrogen are referred to as "pure" hydrocarbons, whereas other

CHEMICAL COMPOUND

A chemical compound (frequently shortened to compound ) is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. [ 4 ] Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure; they consist of a fixed ratio of atoms [ 3 ] that are held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds can be compound molecules held together by covalent bonds, salt

Magnesium

Magnesium (pronounced /mæɡˈniːziəm/ , mag-NEE-zee-əm ) is a chemical element with the symbol Mg , atomic number 12 and common oxidation number +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust , where it constitutes about 2% by mass, [ 2 ] and ninth in the known Universe as a whole. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] This preponderance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of t

CHEMICAL FORMULA

A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. A chemical formula is also a short way of showing how a chemical reaction occurs. For molecular compounds, it identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol and indicates the number of atoms of each element found in each discrete molecule of that compound. If a molecule contains more than one atom of a particular element, this quantity is indicated using a su

CALCIUM OXIDE

Calcium oxide ( CaO ), commonly known as burnt lime , lime or quicklime , is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic and alkaline crystalline solid at room temperature. As a commercial product, lime often also contains magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and smaller amounts of aluminium oxide and iron oxide. The name lime (native lime) refers to a very rare mineral of the CaO composition. [ citation needed ] Calcium oxide is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials such

PROPERTIES OF MATTER

Gasses On a macroscopic level, gasses are notable because of their ability to expand to the size and shape of a container. In addition, gasses belong to the only state of matter that is governed by universal laws. There are a few standard variables that are characteristic of all gasses: is the pressure (N/m2) is the volume (L) is the number of moles of gas is the gas constant 8.314472 Joules/mol*K is the temperature in kelvin (K) is the measure of attraction between the particles is the space e

Chlorin

In organic chemistry , a chlorin is a large heterocyclic aromatic ring consisting, at the core, of three pyrroles and one pyrroline coupled through four methine linkages. Unlike porphin , the central aromatic ring structure of porphyrins , a chlorin is therefore largely aromatic but not aromatic through the entire circumference of the ring. Magnesium-containing chlorins are called chlorophylls , and are the central photosensitive pigment in chloroplasts . A related compound, with two reduced py

Carbon

Carbon ( / ˈ k ɑr b ən / ) is the chemical element withsymbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic andtetravalent—making four electrons available to formcovalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12 C and 13 C being stable, while 14 C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5730 years. [ 9 ] Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] The name "carbon" comes f

CALCIUM

Calcium Atomic Number: 20 Symbol: Ca Atomic Weight: 40.078 Discovery: Sir Humphrey Davy Davy 1808 (England) Electron Configuration: [Ar] 4s 2 Word Origin: Latin calx , calcis : lime Properties: The melting point of calcium is 839 +/- 2°C, boiling point is 1484°C, specific gravity is 1.55 (20°C), with a valence of 2. Calcium is a silvery white, soft alkaline earth metal. Although none of the alkaline earths occur free in nature, calcium compounds are abundant. Uses: Calcium is essential for huma

ICE

Ice is a solid phase , usually crystalline , of a non-metallic substance that is liquid or gas at room temperature, such as water, carbon dioxide ice (dry ice), ammonia ice, or methane ice. [ 1 ] However, the predominant use of the term ice is for water ice , technically restricted to one of the 15 known crystalline phases of water . In non-scientific contexts, the term usually means ice I h , which is known to be the most abundant of these solid phases. It can appear transparent or opaque blui

OXIDATION

Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. This can be either a simple redox process such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide, or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH 4 ), or it can be a complex process such as the oxidation of sugar in the human body through a series of very complex electron transfer processes. The te

Sodium oxide

Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na 2 O. It is used in ceramics and glasses. Treatment with water affords sodium hydroxide. Na 2 O + H 2 O ? 2 NaOH The alkali metal oxides M 2 O (M = Na, K, Rb) crystallise in the antifluorite structure. In this motif the positions of the anions and cations are reversed relative to their positions in CaF 2 . [1] Applications Typically, glass contains around 15% sodium oxide, the other components being silicon dioxide and calcium oxide at arou

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state. It is currently at a globally averaged concentration of approximately 375 ppm by volume in the Earth's atmosphere, [1] although this varies both by location and time. Carbon dioxide's chemical formula is CO 2 . In general, it is exhaled by animals and utilized by plants during ph

SULPHUR DIOXIDE

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO 2 . This important gas is the main product from the combustion of sulfur compounds and is of significant environmental concern. SO 2 is often described as the "smell of burning sulfur" but is not responsible for the smell of rotten eggs. SO 2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxi

Potassium

Potassium (pronounced /pəˈtæsiəm/ ) is a chemical element . It has the symbol K ( Latin : kalium , from Arabic : القَلْيَه ? al qalya “plant ashes”, cf. Alkali from the same root), atomic number 19, and atomic mass 39.0983. The name "potassium" comes from the word "potash", as potassium was first isolated from potash . Potassium is a soft silvery-white metallic alkali metal that occurs naturally bound to other elements in seaw

Particulates

Particulates , alternatively known to as particulate matter ( PM ) or fine particles and also called soot , are tiny subdivisions of solid matter suspended in a gas or liquid. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and/or liquid droplets and the gas together. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Air pollution andwater pollution can take the form of solid particulate matter, or be dissolved. [ 1 ] Salt is an example of a dissolved contaminant in water, while sand is genera

CALORIMETER

Calorimeter An example of a reaction calorimeter Uses Measuring the heat of reaction Related items Reaction calorimeter This box: view • talk • edit A calorimeter is a device used for calorimetry, the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. The word calorimeter is derived from the Latin word calor , meaning heat. Differential scanning calorimeters, isothermal microcalorimeters, titration calorimeters and accelerated rate calorimeters are







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