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Carboxylic acid

Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO 2 H. [ 1 ] Carboxylic acids are Brønsted-Lowry acids — they are proton donors. Salts and anions of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates . The simplest series of carboxylic acids are the alkanoic acids , R-COOH, where R is a hydrogen or an alkyl group. Compounds may also have two or more carboxylic acid groups per molecule. Physical properties Car

MOLECULE

3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. In chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong chemical bonds. It can also be defined as a unit of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Molecules are distinguished from polyatomic ions in this strict sense. In organic chemistry and biochemistry, the term molecule is u

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. Uses Bleaching In household form, sodium hypochlorite is used for removal of stains from laundry. It is particularly effective on cotton fiber, which stains easily but bleaches well. Usually 50 to 250 ml of bleach per load is recommended for a standard-size washer. The properties of household bleach that make it eff

LITHIUM

Lithium (pronounced /ˈlɪ?iəm/ ) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft alkali metal with a silver-white color. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason, lithium metal is typically stored under the cover of oil. According to theory, lithium (mostly 7Li) was one of the few elemen

SULFURIC ACID

Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. It is soluble in water at all concentrations. It was once known as oil of vitriol, coined by the 8th-century Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) after his discovery of the chemical.[1] Sulfuric acid has many applications, and is one of the top products of the chemical industry. World production in 2001 was 165 million tonnes, with an approximate value of US$8 billion. Principal uses include ore processing, fertilizer manufactu

Isomer

In chemistry, isomers (Greek isos = "equal", méros = "part") are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae. [ 1 ] Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties unless they also have the same functional groups. This should not be confused with a nuclear isomer, which involves a nucleus at different states of excitement. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, geometrical isomers, et cetera Isomerism A simple example of

Helium

Helium (pronounced /ˈhiːliəm/ , HEE-lee-əm ) is the chemical element with atomic number 2 and an atomic weight of 4.002602, which is represented by the symbol He . It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling and melting points are the lowest among the elements and it exists only as a gas except in extreme conditions. Next to hydrogen, it is the second most abundant element in the uni

Chemical

chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. It is a concept that became firmly established in the late eighteenth century after work by the chemist Joseph Proust on the composition of some pure chemical compounds such as basic copper carbonate. He deduced that: "All samples of a compound have the same composition; that is, all samples have the same proportions, by mass, of the elements present in the compound". This became known as the law of constant composition [2]

Acid-base chemistry

Acid/Base chemistry began with the Arrhenius model of acids and bases. This model states molecules in water that release hydrogen ions (H + ) are acids, while molecules in water that release hydroxide (OH - ) are bases. This is not complete. The current common definition of an acid and a base is based upon how the substance releases or attracts hydrogen ions (H + ). Acids release H + ions that can turn neutral molecules into positively charged ions, while bases can attract H + ions from neutral

HYDROGEN

Hydrogen (IPA: /ˈhaɪdrə(ʊ)dʒən/) , is a chemical element represented by the symbol H and an atomic number of 1. At standard temperature and pressure it is a colorless, odorless, nonmetallic, tasteless, highly flammable diatomic gas (H 2 ). With an atomic mass of 1.00794 g/mol, hydrogen is the lightest element. Hydrogen is the most abundant of the chemical elements, constituting roughly 75% of the universe's elemental mass. [1] Stars in the main sequence are mai

SULFURIC ACID

Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid , H 2 S O 4 , is a strong mineral acid . It is soluble in water at all concentrations. Sulfuric acid has many applications, and is one of the top products of the chemical industry . World production in 2001 was 165 million tonnes , with an approximate value of US$8 billion. Principal uses include ore processing, fertilizer manufacturing, oil refining , wastewater processing , and chemical synthesis . Many proteins are made of sulfur -containing amino acids (such as

Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide ) is the chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. It often results from the bacterial break down of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers (anaerobic digestion). It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters. The body produces small amounts of H 2 S and uses it as a signaling molecule. Properties Hydrogen s

Isotopes

Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal", tópos = "site, place") are any of the different types of atoms (nuclides) of the same chemical element, each having a different atomic mass (mass number). [ 1 ] Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons. Therefore, isotopes have different mass numbers, which give the total number of nucleons, the number of protons plus neutrons. A nuclide is any particular atomic nucleus with a sp

Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide ) is the chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. It often results from the bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers (anaerobic digestion). It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and some well waters. The body produces small amounts of H 2 S and uses it as a signaling molecule. Properties Hydrogen s

Carboxylic acids

Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO 2 H. [ 1 ] Carboxylic acids are Brønsted-Lowry acids — they are proton donors. Salts and anions of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates . The simplest series of carboxylic acids are the alkanoic acids , R-COOH, where R is a hydrogen or an alkyl group. Compounds may also have two or more carboxylic acid groups per molecule. Physical properties Car

Duralumin

Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium or dural) is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The main alloying constituents are copper, manganese and magnesium. A commonly used modern equivalent of this alloy type is AA2024, which contains (in wt.%) 4.4% copper, 1.5% magnesium, 0.6% manganese and 93.5% aluminium. Typical yield strength is 450 MPa, with variations depending on the composition and temper. [ 1 ] Duralumin was developed by the German

SALT

Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life, but toxic to most land plants. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes, making salt a ubiquitous food seasoning. Salt is also an important preservative. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt), refined salt (table salt), and iodized salt. It is a crystalline solid, white, pale pink or light gray in color, normally obtained from sea water or rock

MATTER

‘Matter’ is the name that scientists give to anything that has mass and occupies space (volume). You and I are made of matter; so is this book and so is the air you are breathing. Chairs we sit, food we eat, all stars, from simple tools to complicated computers that we use and all the invisible particles of gases forming the atmosphere are some examples of matter. Even all living things; from small organisms to big animals, are all examples of matter. Scientist also use the word ‘substances’. T

ISOMERS

In chemistry, isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms. A simple example of isomerism is given by propyl alcohol[?]: it has the formula C 3 H 8 O and the isomers n-propyl alcohol isopropyl alcohol H H H H H H | | | | | | H-C-C-C-O-H H-C-C-C-H | | | | | | H H H H O H | H Note that the critical difference is the position of the oxygen atom - it is attached to an end carbon in the one isomer, and to the centre carbon in the other isomer. It can be re

Protein

Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues . The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene , which is encoded in the genetic code . In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids, however in certain organisms the genetic code can include selenocysteine - and in certain archaea - pyrrolysine . The resid







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