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Biochemistry (from Greek: ßί?? , bios, "life" and Egyptian kēme, "earth"[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules. Chemical biology aims to answer many questions arising from biochemistry by using tools developed within chemical synthesis. Although there are a vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and l

Sodium hypochlorite

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. Production Hypochlorite was first produced in 1789 by Claude Louis Berthollet in his laboratory on the quay Javel in Paris, France, by passing chlorine gas through a solution of sodium carbonate. The resulting liquid, known as " Eau de Javel " ("Javel water"), was a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite. However, thi

Calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide, also known as slaked lime, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH) 2 . It is a colourless crystal or white powder, and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime ) is mixed, or "slaked" with water. It can also be precipitated by mixing an aqueous solution of calcium chloride and an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. A traditional name for calcium hydroxide is slaked lime , or hydrated lime . The name of the natural mineral is portlandite. If h


In chemistry, a mixture is a material system made up by two or more different substances which are (mixed) together but are not combined chemically. Mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances the identities of which are retained. The molecules of two or more different substances are mixed in the form of alloys, solutions , suspensions , and colloids . Mixtures are the product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical substances like elements and compounds, without


In chemistry, amide usually refers to organic compounds that contain the functional group consisting of an acyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N). The term refers both to a class of compounds and a functional group within those compounds. The term amide also refers to deprotonated form of ammonia (NH 3 ) or an amine, often represented as anions R 2 N - . The remainder of this article is about the carbonyl-nitrogen sense of amide . For discussion of these "anionic amides," see the articl


Holmium (pronounced /ˈhoʊlmiəm/ , HOHL-mee-əm ) is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. Part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metallic element, which is stable in dry air at room temperature. A rare earth metal, it is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite. Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any element and therefore is used for the polepieces of the strongest static magnets. Because ho

Periodic table

The periodic table of the chemical elements (also known as the periodic table or periodic table of the elements ) is a tabular display of the 118 known chemical elements organized by selected properties of their atomic structures. Elements are presented by increasingatomic number, the number of protons in an atom's atomic nucleus. While rectangular in general outline, gaps are included in the horizontal rows (known as periods) as needed to keep elements with similar properties together in v


Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. Caustic soda forms a strong alkaline solution when dissolved in a solvent such as water. It is used in many industries, mostly as a strong chemical base in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 1998 was around 45 million tonnes. Sodium hydroxide is the most used base in chemical laboratories. Pure sod


A thermometer (from the Greek ?e?µό? ( thermo ) meaning "warm" and meter , "to measure") is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient using a variety of different principles. A thermometer has two important elements: the temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a mercury thermometer in which some physical change occurs with temperature, plus some means of converting this physical change into a value (e.g. the scale on a mercury thermometer). Thermometers increasingly use elect

Acid-base chemistry

Acid/Base chemistry began with the Arrhenius model of acids and bases. This model states molecules in water that release hydrogen ions (H + ) are acids, while molecules in water that release hydroxide (OH - ) are bases. This is not complete. The current common definition of an acid and a base is based upon how the substance releases or attracts hydrogen ions (H + ). Acids release H + ions that can turn neutral molecules into positively charged ions, while bases can attract H + ions from neutral


Chromite is an iron chromium oxide: FeCr 2 O 4 . It is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. Magnesium can substitute for iron in variable amounts as it forms a solid solution with magnesiochromite (MgCr 2 O 4 ); [ 5 ] substitution of aluminium occurs leading to hercynite. Occurrence Chromite is found in peridotite from the Earth's mantle. It also occurs in layered ultramafic intrusive rocks. [ 7 ] In addition, it is found in metamorphic rocks such as some serpentinites. Ore depos


Isocyanate is the functional group of atoms –N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), not to be confused with the cyanate functional group which is arranged as –O–C=N. Any organic compound which contains an isocyanate group may also be referred to in brief as an isocyanate. An isocyanate may have more than one isocyanate group. An isocyanate that has two isocyanate groups is known as a diisocyanate . Diisocyanates are manufactured for reaction with polyols in the production of polyurethanes. Che

Liothyronine sodium

Liothyronine sodium is the L-isomer of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), a form of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. It is marketed under the brand name Cytomel (or Tertroxin in Australia). Pharmacology Liothyronine is the most potent form of thyroid hormone. As such, it acts on the body to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. The thyroid hormones are ess


Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to muscle. Creatine was identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul discovered it as a component of skeletal muscle, which he later named creatine after the Greek word for flesh, Kreas . Biosynthesis In humans and animals, approximately half of stored creatine originates from food (mainly from fresh meat). Since vegetables do not contain creatine, vegetarians show lower levels of muscle cre


In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent . Types of solutions Usually, the substance present in a greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be gases, liquids, or solids. The solution has the same physical state as the solvent. Gas If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under all given set of conditions. An example for a gaseous solution is air (


A solvent (from the Latin solvere, "loosen") is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specifiedtemperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as a paint thinner (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents


Nitric acid ( HNO 3 ), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre , is a highly corrosive and toxic strong acid . Colorless when pure, older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen . If the solution contains more than 86% nitric acid, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid . Depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present, fuming nitric acid is further characterized as white fuming nitric acid or red fuming nitric acid , at concentrations abov


Blood sugar is a term used to refer to the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose, transported via the bloodstream, is the primary source of energy for the body's cells. Blood sugar concentration, or glucose level, is tightly regulated in the human body. Normally, the blood glucose level is maintained between about 4 and 8 mmol/L (70 to 150 mg/dL). The total amount of glucose in the circulating blood is therefore about 3.3 to 7g (assuming an ordinary adult blood volume of 5 liters). Glucos


Chemical structure of an acetyl group bound to the remainder R of a molecule. In organic chemistry, acetyl (ethanoyl), is a functional group, the acyl of acetic acid, with chemical formula -COCH3. It is sometimes abbreviated as Ac (not to be confused with the element actinium). The acetyl radical contains a methyl group single-bonded to a carbonyl. The carbon of the carbonyl has a lone electron available, with which it forms a chemical bond to the remainder R of the molecule. The acetyl radical


Amphetamine and related drugs such as methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine in the brain. [ 3 ] The group includes prescription CNS drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to dimi

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