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Citric acid is a weak organic acid, and it is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. Inbiochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things. It can also be used as an environmentally benign cleaning agent. Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have part

Calcium chloride

Calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) is an ionic compound of calcium and chlorine. It is highly soluble in water and it is deliquescent. It is a salt that is solid at room temperature, and it behaves as a typical ionic halide. It has several common applications such as brine for refrigeration plants, ice and dust control on roads, and in cement. It can be produced directly from limestone, but large amounts are also produced as a by-product of the Solvay process. Because of its hygroscopic nature, it must


‘Matter’ is the name that scientists give to anything that has mass and occupies space (volume). You and I are made of matter; so is this book and so is the air you are breathing. Chairs we sit, food we eat, all stars, from simple tools to complicated computers that we use and all the invisible particles of gases forming the atmosphere are some examples of matter. Even all living things; from small organisms to big animals, are all examples of matter. Scientist also use the word ‘substances’. T


WHAT IS HYDROGEN? Hydrogen is the simplest element known to man. Each atom of hydrogen has only one proton. It is also the most plentiful gas in the universe. Stars are made primarily of hydrogen. The sun is basically a giant ball of hydrogen and helium gases. In the sun's core, hydrogen atoms combine to form helium atoms. This process—called fusion —gives off radiant energy. This radiant energy sustains life on earth. It gives us light and makes plants grow. It makes the wind blow and rain


Analcime or analcite (from the Greek analkimos - "weak") is a white, grey, or colourless tectosilicate mineral. Analcime consists of hydrated sodium aluminiumsilicate in cubic crystalline form. Its chemical formula is NaAlSi 2 O 6 · H 2 O. Minor amounts of potassium and calcium substitute for sodium. A silver-bearing synthetic variety also exists (Ag-analcite). Analcime is usually classified as a zeolite mineral, but structurally and chemically it is more similar to the feldspathoids. Analcime


The nitrate ion is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO - 3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049 g/mol. It is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identical oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of negative one, where each oxygen carries a - 2 / 3 charge whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, and is commonly used as an example of resonance. Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the

Slater determinant

In quantum mechanics, a Slater determinant is an expression which describes the wavefunction of a multi-fermionic system that satisfies anti-symmetry ( F = 0 ) requirements and subsequently the Pauli exclusion principle by changing sign upon exchange of fermions. It is named for its discoverer, John C. Slater who published Slater determinants as a means of ensuring the antisymmetry of a wave function through the use of matrices. [ 1 ] The Slater determinant arises from the consideration of a wa


Gas is one of four classical states of matter. [ 1 ] Near absolute zero, a substance exists as a solid. As heat is added to this substance it melts into a liquid at its melting point (see phase change), boils into a gas at its boiling point, and if heated high enough would enter a plasma state in which the electrons are so energized that they leave their parent atoms from within the gas. A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas or atomic gas like neon), elemental molecule


Ether is a class of organic compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R–O–R' . [ 1 ] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as "ether" (ethoxyethane, CH 3 -CH 2 -O-CH 2 -CH 3 ). Physical properties Ether molecules cannot form hydrogen bonds amongst each other, resulting in a relatively low boiling point compared to that of the analogous alcohols. However


In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. Chemical properties Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) The sulfate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO 2- 4 and a molecular mass of 96.06 daltons (96.06 g/mol); it consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is very similar to that of methane, CH 4 . The sulfur atom is in the +6 oxid


Peptides (from the Greek peptίd?a , "small digestibles") are short polymers formed from the linking, in a defined order, of a-amino acids. The link between one amino acid residue and the next is known as an amide bond or a peptide bond. Proteins are polypeptide molecules (or consist of multiple polypeptide subunits). The distinction is that peptides are short and polypeptides/proteins are long. There are several different conventions to determine these, all of which have caveats and nuance


An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. For historical reasons discussed below, a few types of compounds such as carbonates, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon, are considered inorganic. The division between "organic" and "inorganic" carbon compounds while "useful in organizing the vast subject of somewhat arbitrary". [ 1 ] Organic chemistry is the science concerned with all as


Amphetamine and related drugs such as methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine in the brain. [ 3 ] The group includes prescription CNS drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to dimi


Electron Configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p1 Word Origin: Latin alumen : alum, an astringent and dyeing mordant Note on Naming: Sir Humphry Davy proposed the name aluminum for the metal, however, the name aluminum was adopted to conform with the "ium" ending of most elements. This spelling is in use in most countries. Aluminium was also the spelling in the U.S. until 1925, when the American Chemical Society officially decided to use the name aluminum instead. Properties: Aluminum has a melting point of


In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. Chemical properties The sulphate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO 2- 4 and a molecular mass of 96.06 daltons; it consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is very similar to that of methane, CH 4 . The sulfur atom is in the +6 oxidation state while the four oxygen atoms ar


In physics, the proton (Greek p?ῶt?? / proton "first") is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit ( 1.602 176 53 (14) × 10 -19 C ), a diameter of about 1.65 × 10 -15 m [1] , and a mass of 938.272 309 (28) MeV/c 2 ( 1.007 276 466 (13) u , 1.6726 × 10 -27 kg), or about 1836 times the mass of an electron. Stability Protons are observed to be stable and their theoretical minimum half-life is 1×10 36 years. Grand unified theories generally predict that pro


Sodium silicate, also known as water glass or liquid glass, available in aqueous solution and in solid form, is a compound used in cements, passive fire protection, refractories, textile and lumber processing. Properties Sodium carbonate and silicon dioxide react when molten to form sodium silicate and carbon dioxide. Sodium silicate is a white solid that is soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. There are many kinds of this compound, including sodium orthosilicate, Na 4 SiO 4 ; sodi


Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3 . It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. In 2006, worldwide production was estimated at


A solvent (from the Latin solvere, "loosen") is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in asolution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g.tetrachloroethylene), as a paint thinner (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (


3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. In chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong chemical bonds. It can also be defined as a unit of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Molecules are distinguished from polyatomic ions in this strict sense. In organic chemistry and biochemistry, the term molecule is u

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