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Conducting Composites

Conducting composites, based on metal- or carbon-filled polymers, have been a focus for research for the past 100 years. Ten years ago, however, a serendipitous discovery led to a new class of materials - quantum tunnelling composites (QTCs). James Berressem Quantum tunnelling composites (QTCs) were first made by accident in 1997 by David Lussey, a research engineer in Darlington who at the time ran a security business. Asked by a local FE college to solve its problem of students stealing compu

BIOCHEMISTRY

Biochemistry (from Greek: ßί?? , bios, "life" and Egyptian kēme, "earth"[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules. Chemical biology aims to answer many questions arising from biochemistry by using tools developed within chemical synthesis. Although there are a vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and l

NITRATE ION

The nitrate ion is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO - 3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049 g/mol. It is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identical oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of negative one, where each oxygen carries a - 2 / 3 charge whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, and is commonly used as an example of resonance. Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the

Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a very pale blue liquid, slightly more viscous than water, that appears colorless in dilute solution. It is a weak acid, has strong oxidizing properties, and is a powerful bleaching agent . It is used as a disinfectant, antiseptic, oxidizer , and in rocketry as a propellant. [ 2 ] The oxidizing capacity of hydrogen peroxide is so strong that it is considered a highly reactive oxygen species. Hydrogen peroxide is naturally produced in organisms as a by-product of

Creatine

Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to muscle. Creatine was identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul discovered it as a component of skeletal muscle, which he later named creatine after the Greek word for flesh, Kreas . Biosynthesis In humans and animals, approximately half of stored creatine originates from food (mainly from fresh meat). Since vegetables do not contain creatine, vegetarians show lower levels of muscle cre

BAROMETER

A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. It can measure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere by using water, air, or mercury. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in the weather. Numerous measurements of air pressure are used within surface weather analysis to help find surface troughs, high pressure systems, and frontal boundaries. Types Water-based barometers The concept that 'decreasing atmospheric pressure predicts stormy weather' was postula

POLYMER

A polymer (from Greek p??ύ-? /po΄li-s/ much, many and µέ??? /΄meros/ part) is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials with a variety of properties. Due to the extraordinary range of properties accessible in polymeric materials [ 2 ] , they have come to play an essential an

Holmium

Holmium (pronounced /ˈhoʊlmiəm/ , HOHL-mee-əm ) is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. Part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metallic element, which is stable in dry air at room temperature. A rare earth metal, it is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite. Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any element and therefore is used for the polepieces of the strongest static magnets. Because ho

UREA

Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH 2 ) 2 CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. For example, the medicinal compound hydroxyurea (old British Approved Name) is now hydroxycarbamide . Other names include carbamide resin, isourea, carbonyl diamide, and carbonyldiamine. It was the first organic compound to be artificially synthesized from inorganic starting materials, thus dispelling the c

Duralumin

Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium or dural) is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The main alloying constituents are copper, manganese and magnesium. A commonly used modern equivalent of this alloy type is AA2024, which contains (in wt.%) 4.4% copper, 1.5% magnesium, 0.6% manganese and 93.5% aluminium. Typical yield strength is 450 MPa, with variations depending on the composition and temper. [ 1 ] Duralumin was developed by the German

Nitrosylazide

Nitrosylazide is a highly unstable nitrogen oxide, chemical formula N 4 O, which can be synthesized via the following reaction at low temperatures: NaN 3 (in excess) + NOCl ? NaCl + N 4 O Below -50°C nitrosylazide exists as a pale yellow solid. Above this temperature, it decomposes into nitrous oxide and elemental nitrogen : N 4 O ? N 2 O + N 2

Auger electron spectroscopy

Auger electron spectroscopy (AES; Auger pronounced [oːʒeː] in French) is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials science. Underlying the spectroscopic technique is the Auger effect, as it has come to be called, which is based on the analysis of energetic electrons emitted from an excited atom after a series of internal relaxation events. The Auger effect was discovered independently by both Lise Meitne

Chemical equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium is a state where all chemical reactions proceed at the same rate as their reverses, so there is no change in the proportions of the various compounds. Without energy input chemical reactions always proceed towards equilibrium. For a reaction k A + m B <-> n C + p D, equilibrium occurs when [A] k [B] m / [C] n [D] p = K where K is a constant called the equilibrium constant. The left side of the equation is called the action and is denoted Q for a generic state (not necessari

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state. It is currently at a globally averaged concentration of approximately 375 ppm by volume in the Earth's atmosphere, [1] although this varies both by location and time. Carbon dioxide's chemical formula is CO 2 . In general, it is exhaled by animals and utilized by plants during ph

HEAVY WATER

Heavy water is water which contains a higher proportion than normal of the isotope deuterium, as deuterium oxide , D 2 O or 2 H 2 O, or as deuterium protium oxide , HDO or 1 H 2 HO. [1] Its physical and chemical properties are somewhat similar to those of water, H 2 O. Heavy water may contain as much as 100% D 2 O, and usually the term refers to water which is highly enriched in deuterium. The isotopic substitution with deuterium alters the bond energy of the hydrogen-oxygen bond in water, alte

Stereochemistry

The different types of isomers. Stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers Stereochemistry , a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules. An important branch of stereochemistry is the study of chiral molecules [ 1 ] . Stereochemistry is a hugely important facet of chemistry and the study of stereochemical problems spans the entire range of organic, inorganic, biological, physical and supramolecular chemistries. Stereochemistry inc

Talc

Talc (derived from the Persian talc (تالک ) via Arabic talk (تلك)) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H 2 Mg 3 (SiO 3 ) 4 or Mg 3 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 . In loose form, it is the widely-used substance known as talcum powder . It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses, its monoclinic crystals being so rare as to be almost unknown. It has a perfect basal cleavage , and the folia are non- elastic , although slightly fle

SULFATE

In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. Chemical properties Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) The sulfate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO 2- 4 and a molecular mass of 96.06 daltons (96.06 g/mol); it consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is very similar to that of methane, CH 4 . The sulfur atom is in the +6 oxid

Reflux

Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated. It is used in industrial and laboratory distillations. It is also used in chemistry to supply energy to reactions over a long period of time. Reflux in laboratory distillation Laboratory apparatus using reflux to supply energy to chemical reactions. An Erlenmeyer flask is used as a receiving flask. Here the distillation head and fractionating column are combined i

Astatine

Atomic Number: 85 Symbol: At Atomic Weight: 209.9871 Discovery: D.R. Corson, K.R. MacKenzie, E. Segre 1940 (United States) Electron Configuration: [Xe] 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 5 Word Origin: Greek astatos , unstable Isotopes: Astatine-210 is the longest-lived isotope, with a half-life of 8.3 hours. Twenty isotopes are known. Properties: Astatine has a melting point of 302°C, an estimated boiling point of 337°C, with probable valences of 1, 3, 5, or 7. Astatine possesses characteristics common to ot







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