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Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na 2 CO 3 , is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. It most commonly occurs as a crystalline heptahydrate which readily effloresces to form a white powder, the monohydrate. It has a cooling alkaline taste, and can be extracted from the ashes of many plants. It is synthetically produced in large quantities from table salt in a process known as the Solvay process Uses Sodium carbonate's most important use is in the chemical make-up of glas


Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO 2 . This important gas is the main product from the combustion of sulfur compounds and is of significant environmental concern. SO 2 is often described as the "smell of burning sulfur" but is not responsible for the smell of rotten eggs. SO 2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxi


Phenol , also known as carbolic acid , is a toxic, white crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor, commonly referred to as a "hospital smell". Its chemical formula is C 6 H 5 OH and its structure is that of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded to a phenyl ring; it is thus an aromatic compound. Phenols The word phenol is also used to refer to any compound that contains a six-membered aromatic ring, bonded directly to a hydroxyl group (-OH). In effect, phenols are a class of organic compounds of which

Magnesium fluoride

Magnesium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula MgF 2 . This white crystalline salt is useful because it is transparent over a wide range of wavelenghths. Production and structure Magnesium fluoride is prepared from magnesium oxide with sources of HF such as ammonium bifluoride: MgO + (NH 4 )HF 2 ? MgF 2 + NH 3 + H 2 O The compound crystallizes as tetragonal birefringent crystals. Its structure is similar to that in rutile, featuring octahedral Mg 2+ centers and 3-coordinatefluorid


Analcime or analcite (from the Greek analkimos - "weak") is a white, grey, or colourless tectosilicate mineral. Analcime consists of hydrated sodium aluminiumsilicate in cubic crystalline form. Its chemical formula is NaAlSi 2 O 6 · H 2 O. Minor amounts of potassium and calcium substitute for sodium. A silver-bearing synthetic variety also exists (Ag-analcite). Analcime is usually classified as a zeolite mineral, but structurally and chemically it is more similar to the feldspathoids. Analcime


A clinical mercury thermometer The thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient using a variety of different principles. The word thermometer is derived from two smaller word fragments: thermo from the Greek for heat and meter also from Greek, meaning to measure. A thermometer has two important elements: the temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a mercury thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature, plus some means of converting this physical c


Citric acid is a weak organic acid, and it is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. Inbiochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things. It can also be used as an environmentally benign cleaning agent. Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have part


An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom as well as at least one other element. Most of the Earth's crust consists of oxides. Oxides result when elements are oxidized by oxygen in air . Combustion of hydrocarbons affords the two principal oxides of carbon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Even materials that are considered to be pure elements often contain a coating of oxides. For example, aluminium foil has a thin skin of Al 2 O 3 that protects the foil from f

Ammonium nitrate

The chemical compound ammonium nitrate , the nitrate of ammonia with the chemical formula NH 4 NO 3 , is a white crystalline solid at room temperature and standard pressure. It is commonly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer, and it has also been used as an oxidizing agent in explosives, including improvised explosive devices. It is the main component of ANFO, a very popular explosive. Ammonium nitrate is used in instant cold packs, as hydrating the salt is an endothermic process.


Lithium (pronounced /ˈlɪ?iəm/ ) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft alkali metal with a silver-white color. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason, lithium metal is typically stored under the cover of oil. According to theory, lithium (mostly 7Li) was one of the few elemen


A heavy metal is a member of an ill-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties, which would mainly include the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. Many different definitions have been proposed—some based on density, some on atomic number or atomic weight, and some on chemical properties or toxicity. [ 1 ] The term heavy metal has been called a "misinterpretation" in an IUPAC technical report due to the contradictory definitions and its lack of a "coh


Sulfur or sulphur (pronounced /ˈsʌlfɚ/ , see spelling below) is the chemical element that has the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used


In chemistry, valence , also known as valency or valency number , is a measure of the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element. Over the last century, the concept of valence evolved into a range of approaches for describing the chemical bond, including Lewis structures (1916), valence bond theory (1927), molecular orbitals (1928), valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (1958) and all the advanced methods of quantum chemistry. History The etymology of the word "valen


Water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. [1] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice , and a gaseous state, water vapor . About 1,460 teratonnes (Tt) of water covers 71% of the Earth's surface, mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in a


A solvent (from the Latin solvere, "loosen") is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in asolution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g.tetrachloroethylene), as a paint thinner (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (


diagram of modern burette A burette (also buret) is a vertical cylindrical piece of laboratory glassware with a volumetric graduation on its full length and a precision tap, or stopcock, on the bottom. It is used to dispense known amounts of a liquid reagent in experiments for which such precision is necessary, such as a titration experiment. Burettes are extremely accurate: class A burettes are accurate to ±0.05 cm3. Using a burette The precision of a burette makes careful measurement with a b


Ether is a class of organic compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R–O–R' . [ 1 ] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as "ether" (ethoxyethane, CH 3 -CH 2 -O-CH 2 -CH 3 ). Physical properties Ether molecules cannot form hydrogen bonds amongst each other, resulting in a relatively low boiling point compared to that of the analogous alcohols. However


Heavy water is water which contains a higher proportion than normal of the isotope deuterium, as deuterium oxide , D 2 O or 2 H 2 O, or as deuterium protium oxide , HDO or 1 H 2 HO. [1] Its physical and chemical properties are somewhat similar to those of water, H 2 O. Heavy water may contain as much as 100% D 2 O, and usually the term refers to water which is highly enriched in deuterium. The isotopic substitution with deuterium alters the bond energy of the hydrogen-oxygen bond in water, alte


Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal", tópos = "site, place") are any of the different types of atoms (nuclides) of the same chemical element, each having a different atomic mass (mass number). [ 1 ] Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons. Therefore, isotopes have different mass numbers, which give the total number of nucleons, the number of protons plus neutrons. A nuclide is any particular atomic nucleus with a sp


A buffer solution is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. It has the property that the pH of the solution changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it. Buffer solutions are used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value in a wide variety of chemical applications. Many life forms thrive only in a relatively small pH range; an example of a buffer solution is blood. Princi

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