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‘Matter’ is the name that scientists give to anything that has mass and occupies space (volume). You and I are made of matter; so is this book and so is the air you are breathing. Chairs we sit, food we eat, all stars, from simple tools to complicated computers that we use and all the invisible particles of gases forming the atmosphere are some examples of matter. Even all living things; from small organisms to big animals, are all examples of matter. Scientist also use the word ‘substances’. T

Bomb Calorimetry

A calorimeter is a device used to measure the quantity of heat flow in a chemical reaction. Two of the most common types of calorimeters are the coffee cup calorimeter and the bomb calorimeter. Coffee Cup Calorimeter A coffee cup calorimeter is essentially a polystyrene (Styrofoam) cup with a lid. The cup is partially filled with a known volume of water and a thermometer is inserted through the lid of the cup so that its bulb is below the water surface. When a chemical reaction occurs in the co


Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Pollutants Before flue gas

Liothyronine sodium

Liothyronine sodium is the L-isomer of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), a form of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. It is marketed under the brand name Cytomel (or Tertroxin in Australia). Pharmacology Liothyronine is the most potent form of thyroid hormone. As such, it acts on the body to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. The thyroid hormones are ess


Amphetamine and related drugs such as methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine in the brain. [ 3 ] The group includes prescription CNS drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to dimi


Asbestos is a naturally occurring silicate mineral with long, thin fibrous crystals. The word asbestos (ἄsßest??) is derived from a Greek adjective meaning inextinguishable. The Greeks termed asbestos the miracle mineral because of its soft and pliant properties, as well as its ability to withstand heat. Asbestos is known to have toxicity. The inhalation of toxic asbestos fibers can cause serious illnesses, including malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis (also called pneumoc


diagram of modern burette A burette (also buret) is a vertical cylindrical piece of laboratory glassware with a volumetric graduation on its full length and a precision tap, or stopcock, on the bottom. It is used to dispense known amounts of a liquid reagent in experiments for which such precision is necessary, such as a titration experiment. Burettes are extremely accurate: class A burettes are accurate to ±0.05 cm3. Using a burette The precision of a burette makes careful measurement with a b

Sodium hypochlorite

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. Production Hypochlorite was first produced in 1789 by Claude Louis Berthollet in his laboratory on the quay Javel in Paris, France, by passing chlorine gas through a solution of sodium carbonate. The resulting liquid, known as " Eau de Javel " ("Javel water"), was a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite. However, thi


Sulfur or sulphur (pronounced /ˈsʌlfɚ/ , see spelling below) is the chemical element that has the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used


Yttrium ( / ˈ ɪ t r i əm / it -ree-əm ) is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element". [ 2 ] Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element. Its only stable isotope, 89 Y, is also its only naturally occurring isotope. In 1787, Carl Axel Arrheni


Diagram of the carbon cycle. The black numbers indicate how much carbon is stored in various reservoirs, in billions of tons ("GtC" stands for GigaTons of Carbon and figures are circa 2004). The purple numbers indicate how much carbon moves between reservoirs each year. The sediments, as defined in this diagram, do not include the ~70 million GtC of carbonate rock and kerogen. The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere


A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. A chemical formula is also a short way of showing how a chemical reaction occurs. For molecular compounds, it identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol and indicates the number of atoms of each element found in each discrete molecule of that compound. If a molecule contains more than one atom of a particular element, this quantity is indicated using a su


The fundamentals of Chemistry is an introduction to the Periodic Table, stoichiometry , chemical states, equilibria, acid/bases, oxidation/reduction reaction, kinetics, bonding, among other parts of chemistry. Periodic Table of Elements This box represents Hydrogen on the Periodic table Everyone has heard of a chemical element, and many people could name a couple off the top of their heads, yet there are so many more that people are not familiar with. Each element has different properties which


In organic chemistry , a chlorin is a large heterocyclic aromatic ring consisting, at the core, of three pyrroles and one pyrroline coupled through four methine linkages. Unlike porphin , the central aromatic ring structure of porphyrins , a chlorin is therefore largely aromatic but not aromatic through the entire circumference of the ring. Magnesium-containing chlorins are called chlorophylls , and are the central photosensitive pigment in chloroplasts . A related compound, with two reduced py


Methane (pronounced /ˈmɛ?eɪn/ or /ˈmiː?eɪn/) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH 4 . It is the simplest alkane, and the principal component of natural gas. Methane's bond angles are 109.5 degrees. Burning methane in the presence of oxygen produces carbon dioxide and water. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel. However, because it is a gas at normal temperature and pressure, methane is difficult to transport from its sour


Sodium silicate, also known as water glass or liquid glass, available in aqueous solution and in solid form, is a compound used in cements, passive fire protection, refractories, textile and lumber processing. Properties Sodium carbonate and silicon dioxide react when molten to form sodium silicate and carbon dioxide. Sodium silicate is a white solid that is soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. There are many kinds of this compound, including sodium orthosilicate, Na 4 SiO 4 ; sodi


A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the cyano group , C=N, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. [ 1 ] Most commonly, cyanides refers to salts of the anion CN - . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Most cyanides are highly toxic. [ 4 ] In organic chemistry compounds containing a -C=N group are known as nitriles and compounds which contain the -N=C group are known as isocyanides . Organic nitriles and isocyanides are far less toxic because they do not release cyanide ions easily.


Discovery: Carbon exists free in nature and has been known since prehistoric time. Electron Configuration: [He]2s 2 2p 2 Word Origin: Latin carbo , German Kohlenstoff, French carbone: coal or charcoal Isotopes: There are seven natural isotopes of carbon. In 1961 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted the isotope carbon-12 as the basis for atomic weights. Properties: Carbon is found free in nature in three allotropic forms: amorphous (lampblack, boneblack), graphite, and d


In chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept protons. This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. Alternate definitions of bases include electron pair donors (Lewis), as sources of hydroxide anions (Arrhenius) and can be (commonly) thought of as any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH higher than 7.0. Examples of simple bases are sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Bases can be thought of as the chemi


Distillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation usually forms part of a larger chemical process, and is thus referred to as a unit operation. Commercially, distillation has a number of uses. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as transport, power generation and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from sea water. Air is distilled to se

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