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Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry. Key concepts The structure of the ionic framew

WATER

Water is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice , and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam . Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface [ 1 ] . On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water part

SODIUM SILICATE

Sodium silicate, also known as water glass or liquid glass, available in aqueous solution and in solid form, is a compound used in cements, passive fire protection, refractories, textile and lumber processing. Properties Sodium carbonate and silicon dioxide react when molten to form sodium silicate and carbon dioxide. Sodium silicate is a white solid that is soluble in water, producing an alkaline solution. There are many kinds of this compound, including sodium orthosilicate, Na 4 SiO 4 ; sodi

SOLVENT

A solvent (from the Latin solvere, "loosen") is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in asolution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g.tetrachloroethylene), as a paint thinner (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (

Yttrium

Yttrium ( / ˈ ɪ t r i əm / it -ree-əm ) is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element". [ 2 ] Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element. Its only stable isotope, 89 Y, is also its only naturally occurring isotope. In 1787, Carl Axel Arrheni

CITRIC ACID

Citric acid is a weak organic acid, and it is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. Inbiochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things. It can also be used as an environmentally benign cleaning agent. Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have part

SOLUTION

In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent . Types of solutions Usually, the substance present in a greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be gases, liquids, or solids. The solution has the same physical state as the solvent. Gas If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under all given set of conditions. An example for a gaseous solution is air (

SULFUR DIOXIDE

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide ) is the chemical compound with the formula SO 2 . SO 2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. It is also used to protect wine fron dioxygen and bacteria.

Alkane Reactions

The alkanes and cycloalkanes, with the exception of cyclopropane, are probably the least chemically reactive class of organic compounds. Despite their relative inertness, alkanes undergo several important reactions that are discussed in the following section. 1. Combustion The combustion of carbon compounds, especially hydrocarbons, has been the most important source of heat energy for human civilizations throughout recorded history. The practical importance of this reaction cannot be denied, b

CALCIUM

Calcium (pronounced /ˈkælsiəm/ , KAL-see-əm ) is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth most abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate. [ 1 ] Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiol

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE

Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance. A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. It is a concept that became firmly established in the late eighteenth century after work by the chemist Joseph Proust on the composition of some pure chemical compounds such as basic copper carbonate.[1] He deduced that, "All samples of a compound have the same composition; that is, all samples have the same proportions, by mass, of the elements presen

Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry Inorganic compounds show rich variety: A: Diborane features unusual bonding B: Caesium chloride has an archetypal crystal structure C: Fp 2 is an organometallic complex D: Silicone's uses range from breast implants to Silly Putty E: Grubbs' catalyst won the 2005 Nobel Prize for its discoverer F: Zeolites find extensive use as molecular sieves G: Copper(II) acetate surprised theoreticians with its diamagnetism Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned w

Oxidation state

In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. The formal oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100% ionic. Oxidation states are typically represented by integers, which can be positive, negative, or zero. In some cases the average oxidation state of an element is a fraction, such as 8/3 for iron in magnetite ( Fe 3 O 4 ). The highest oxidation state is

BLOOD SUGAR

Blood sugar is a term used to refer to the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose, transported via the bloodstream, is the primary source of energy for the body's cells. Blood sugar concentration, or glucose level, is tightly regulated in the human body. Normally, the blood glucose level is maintained between about 4 and 8 mmol/L (70 to 150 mg/dL). The total amount of glucose in the circulating blood is therefore about 3.3 to 7g (assuming an ordinary adult blood volume of 5 liters). Glucos

Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic and alkaline crystalline solid. As a commercial product, lime often also contains magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and smaller amounts of aluminium oxide and iron oxide. Calcium oxide is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials such as limestone, that contain calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ; mineral name: calcite) in a lime kiln. This is accomplished by heating

Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide ) is the chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. It often results from the bacterial break down of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers (anaerobic digestion). It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters. The body produces small amounts of H 2 S and uses it as a signaling molecule. Properties Hydrogen s

ETHER

Ether is a class of organic compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R–O–R' . [ 1 ] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as "ether" (ethoxyethane, CH 3 -CH 2 -O-CH 2 -CH 3 ). Physical properties Ether molecules cannot form hydrogen bonds amongst each other, resulting in a relatively low boiling point compared to that of the analogous alcohols. However

Asbestos

Asbestos is a naturally occurring silicate mineral with long, thin fibrous crystals. The word asbestos (ἄsßest??) is derived from a Greek adjective meaning inextinguishable. The Greeks termed asbestos the miracle mineral because of its soft and pliant properties, as well as its ability to withstand heat. Asbestos is known to have toxicity. The inhalation of toxic asbestos fibers can cause serious illnesses, including malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis (also called pneumoc

Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO 2 . One of several nitrogen oxides, NO 2 is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid, millions of tons of which are produced each year. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent air pollutant. Nitrogen dioxide is a paramagnetic bent molecule with C 2v point group symmetry. Occurrence NO 2 exists in equilibrium with dinitrogen tetroxide ( N 2 O 4 ): 2 NO 2 N 2 O 4 The equ

Nitrosylazide

Nitrosylazide is a highly unstable nitrogen oxide, chemical formula N 4 O, which can be synthesized via the following reaction at low temperatures: NaN 3 (in excess) + NOCl ? NaCl + N 4 O Below -50°C nitrosylazide exists as a pale yellow solid. Above this temperature, it decomposes into nitrous oxide and elemental nitrogen : N 4 O ? N 2 O + N 2







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