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# Physics

CHARGE
In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics. Charges are associated with conserved quantum numbers. Formal definition More abstractly, a charge is any generator of a continuous symmetry of the physical system under study. When a physical system has a symmetry of some sort, Noether's theorem implies the existence of a conserved current. The thing that "flows" in the current i

Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics (from the Greek ?e?µ?, therme, meaning "heat" and d??aµ??, dynamis, meaning "power") is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. [1] [2] Roughly, heat means "energy in transit" and dynamics relates to "movement"; thus, in essence thermodynamics studies the movement of energy and how energy instills movement. Histo

Universal Gravitation
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Isaac Newton compared the acceleration of the moon to the acceleration of objects on earth. Believing that gravitational forces were responsible for each, Newton was able to draw an important conclusion about the dependence of gravity upon distance. This comparison led him to conclude that the force of gravitational attraction between the Earth and other objects is inversely proportional to the distance separating the earth's center from the object&

ENERGY
Lightning is the electric breakdown of air by strong electric fields, producing a plasma, which causes an energy transfer from the electric field to heat, mechanical energy (the random motion of air molecules caused by the heat), and light. In physics and other sciences, energy (from the Greek e?e??ό?, energos , "active, working") [1] is a scalar physical quantity that is a property of objects and systems which is conserved by nature. Energy is often defined as the capacity to do work. Sev

# Chemistry

CRYSTAL
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal is derived from the ancient Greek word ??ύsta???? ( krustallos ), which had the same meaning, but according

CRYSTAL
Quartz crystal. The individual grains of this polycrystalline mineral sample are clearly visible. Synthetic bismuth hopper crystal In chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The word crystal is a loan from the ancient Greek word ??ύsta???? ( krustallos ), which had the same meaning, but according to the ancient underst

SODIUM CHLORIDE
Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. As the main ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. In one gram of sodium chloride, there are approximately 0.3933 grams of sodium, and 0.6067 g of chlorine Production and use Salt is currently produced

HEAVY WATER
Heavy water is water which contains a higher proportion than normal of the isotope deuterium, as deuterium oxide , D 2 O or 2 H 2 O, or as deuterium protium oxide , HDO or 1 H 2 HO. [1] Its physical and chemical properties are somewhat similar to those of water, H 2 O. Heavy water may contain as much as 100% D 2 O, and usually the term refers to water which is highly enriched in deuterium. The isotopic substitution with deuterium alters the bond energy of the hydrogen-oxygen bond in water, alte

# Mathematics

ABSTRACT ALGEBRA
Abstract algebra is the subject area of mathematics that studies algebraic structures, such as groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, and algebras. Most contemporary authors simply write algebra instead of abstract algebra. The term abstract algebra now refers to the study of all algebraic structures, as distinct from the elementary algebra ordinarily taught to children, which teaches the correct rules for manipulating formulas and algebraic expressions involving real and complex number

Greatest common divisor
In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (gcd) , also known as the greatest common factor (gcf) , or highest common factor (hcf) , of two or more non-zero integers, is the largest positive integer that divides the numbers without a remainder. This notion can be extended to polynomials, see greatest common divisor of two polynomials. Overview The greatest common divisor of a and b is written as gcd( a , b ), or sometimes simply as ( a , b ). For example, gcd(12, 18) = 6, gcd(-4, 14) = 2. Two

Calculus-Lines, Planes, and Vectors
Lines, Planes, and Vectors In this tutorial, we will use vector methods to represent lines and planes in 3-space. Displacement Vector The displacement vector v with initial point (x 1 ,y 1 ,z 1 ) and terminal point (x 2 ,y 2 ,z 2 ) is v = (x 2 -x 1 ,y 2 -y 1 ,z 2 -z 1 ) Why? That is, if vector v were positioned with its initial point at the origin, then its terminal point would be at (x 2 -x 1 ,y 2 -y 1 ,z 2 -z 1 ). Example The vector v with initial point (-1,4,5) and final point (4,-3,2) is v

Vinculum (symbol)
A vinculum is a horizontal line placed over a mathematical expression , used to indicate that it is to be considered grouped together. Vinculum is Latin for "bond", "fetter", "chain", or "tie", which is roughly suggestive of some of the uses of the symbol. Uses In a repeating decimal, the vinculum is used to indicate the group of repeating digits: It is used as part of the notation of a radical to indicate the radicand whose root is being indicated. In the next case, the quantity a b + 2 is the

# Biology

CUTTING PLANT
Example of Taking a Cutting [1] Plant cutting, also known as striking/cloning, is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. The cutting produces new roots, stems, or both, and thus becomes a new plant independent of the parent. Technique Typically, striking is a simple process in which a small amount of the parent plant is re

POPULATION ECOLOGY
Population ecology is a major sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. [1] The older term, autecology (from Greek: aὐt?, auto , "self"; ?ί???, oikos, "household"; and ?ό???, logos, "knowledge") refers to the roughly same field of study, coming from the division of ecology into autecology—the study of individual species in relation to the environment—and synecology—the study of groups of orga

Photoinhibition
Photoinhibition is a reduction in a plant's (or other photosynthetic organism's) capacity for photosynthesis caused by exposure to strong light (above the saturation point). Photoinhibition is not caused by high light per se, but rather absorption of too much light energy compared with the photosynthetic capacity, i.e. any excess energy that the photosystem cannot handle is damaging. Too much light energy affects (photosystem II (P680)) more than photosystem I (PSI), and it has been hyp

Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used, such as based on similarity of DNA or morphology. Presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species into subspecies. Biologists' working definition A usable defini

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