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White blood cell

White blood cells or leukocytes are cells of the immune system which defend the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Several different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system. The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease. There are normally between 4×


Energy Energy is primarily in C-H bonds (C-O too) Chemical energy drives metabolism Autotrophs: harvest energy through photosynthesis or related process (plants, algae, some bacteria) Heterotrophs: live on energy produced by autotrophs (most bacteria and protists, fungi, animals) Digestion: enzymatic breakdown of polymers into monomers Catabolism: enzymatic harvesting of energy Respiration: harvesting of high energy electrons from glucose Respiration Transfer of energy from high energy electron

Nervous system

The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous system of vertebrates (such as humans) contains the brain, spinal cord, and retina. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons called ganglia, and nerves connecting th


In the center of the diagram are three of the early steps in the development of a mammal. On the top and bottom are some of the fully-differentiated cell types that will eventually form in the adult. In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as the organism changes from a single zygote to a complex system of tissu


Insects (Class Insecta ) are arthropods, having a hard exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae. They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and include approximately 30 Notoptera, 35 Zoraptera , 150 snakefly, 200 silverfish, 300 alderfly, 300 webspinner, 350 jumping bristletail, 550 scorpionfly, 600 Strepsiptera , 1,200 caddisfly, 1,700 stonefly, 1,800 earwig, 2,000 flea, 2,200 mantis, 2,500 mayfly, 3,


Biology is the study of the many varieties of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli , tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek ß?????ίa - ßί??, bios , "life"; -???ίa, -logia, study of ) is a branch of the natural sciences concerned with the study of living organisms and their interaction with each other and their environment. The term was first used by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. The science of biology examines the structure, function, growth, orig

Natural selection

Natural selection is the process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms, and unfavorable heritable traits become less common, due to differential reproduction of genotypes. Natural selection acts on the phenotype, or the observable characteristics of an organism, such that individuals with favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with less favorable phenotypes. The phenotype's


Carbohydrates (from 'hydrates of carbon') or saccharides (Greek sά??a??? , sákcharon, meaning "sugar") are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (eg: starch, glycogen) and structural components (eg: cellulose in plants, chitin and cartilage in animals). Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilizat


An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. The word is derived from Latin, meaning egg or egg cell. Both animals and embryophytes have ova. The term ovule is used for the young ovum of an animal, as well as the plant structure that carries the female gametophyte and egg cell and develops into a seed after fertilization. In lower plants and algae, the ovum is also often called oospher. A human ovum The process of fertilizing an ovum (Top to bottom) For other uses, see


In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum ) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. To enable incubation the egg is usually kept within a favourable temperature range as it nourishes and protects the growing embryo. When the embryo is adequately developed it breaks out of the egg in the process of hatching. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth with which to crack or pip the eggshell or covering. Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other develo


OVERVIEW: Our world is in danger. Pollution of the air, water, and land is rampant, overwhelming the delicate balance of nature of the planet. Many species of plants and animals face extinction at an alarming rate. Until all of the peoples of the world are educated and informed, this destruction will continue. PURPOSE: Because children are the leaders of tomorrow, educating them today to become responsible users and protectors of their environment, will result in a more positive future for our


In human anatomy, the groin areas are the two creases torso with the legs, [ 1 ] on either side of the pubic area. [ 2 ] A pulled groin muscle usually refers to a painful injury sustained by straining the hip adduction muscles. [ 3 ] at the junction of the The term is sometimes used as a euphemism for sex organs since the names of the sex organs are taboo words in some cultures. For vascular surgeons the groin is the preferred site for incisions to enter a catheter into the vascular system.


Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, which is the product of four billion years of evolution. Evolution and meaning Biodiversity is a neologism and portmanteau word, from biology and diversity. The Scienc

Cell structure

What is a cell? The word cell comes from the Latin word "cella", meaning "small room", and it was first coined by a microscopist observing the structure of cork. The cell is the basic unit of all living things, and all organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are so basic and critical to the study of life, in fact, that they are often referred to as "the building blocks of life". Organisms - bacteria, amoebae and yeasts, for example - may consist of as few as one cell, while a typical


Diabetes mellitus ( IPA : /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz/ or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ , /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ ), often referred to simply as diabetes (Ancient Greek: d?aßήt?? “to pass through [urine]”), is a syndrome of disordered metabolism, usually due to a combination of hereditary and environmental causes, resulting in abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). [2] Blood glucose levels are controlled


Amphibians (class Amphibia, from Amphi- meaning "on both sides" and -bios meaning "life"), such as frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians, are ectothermic (or cold-blooded) animals that metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form, either to an adult air-breathing form, or to a paedomorph that retains some juvenile characteristics. Proteidae (mudpuppies and waterdogs) are good examples of paedomorphic species. Though amphibians typically have four limbs, the caecilians are notabl


A thrombus (Greek ??όµß??), or blood clot , is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. It is achieved via the aggregation of platelets that form a platelet plug, and the activation of the humoral coagulation system (i.e. clotting factors). A thrombus is normal in cases of injury, but pathologic in instances of thrombosis. Pathophysiology Specifically, a thrombus is the inappropriate activation of the hemostatic process in an uninjured or slightly injured vessel. A th


Macroecology is the subfield of ecology that deals with the study of relationships between organisms and their environment at large spatial scales to characterise and explain statistical patterns of abundance, distribution and diversity. The term was coined by James Brown of the University of New Mexico and Brian Maurer of Michigan State University in a 1989 paper in Science . Macroecology approaches the idea of studying ecosystems using a "top down" approach. It seeks understanding through the


Insects (Class Insecta ) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than half of all known living organisms [ 2 ] [ 3 ] —with estimates of undescribed species as high as 30 million, thus potentially representing over 90% of the differing life forms on the planet. [ 4 ] Insects may be found in nearly all environments on the planet, although only a small number of species occur in the oceans, a habitat dominated b


An example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship between Ocellaris clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones. The territorial fish protects the anemone from anemone-eating fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators (a special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles). [1] The term symbiosis (from the Greek: s?µ, sym , "with"; and ßί?sί?, biosis , "living") commonly describes close and

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