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Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant . The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes, the nodes hold buds which grow into one or more leaves , inflorescence (flowers), cones or other stems etc. The internodes act as spaces that distance one node from another. The term shoots is often confused with stems; shoots generally refer to new fresh plant growth and does include stems but a


Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n , a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand ß(1?4) linked D -glucose units. [1] [2] Cellulose is the structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most common organic compound on Earth. About 33 percent of all plant matter is cellulose (the cellulose content o


Blood is a specialized biological fluid consisting of red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes) suspended in a complex fluid medium known as blood plasma. By far the most abundant cells in blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin which gives blood its red color. The iron-containing heme portion of Hemoglobin facilitates hemoglobin-bound transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide by selectiv


Shoots are new plant growth, they can include stems, flowering stems with flower buds, leaves. The new growth from seed germination that grows upward is a shoot where leaves will develop. In the spring, perennial plant shoots are the new growth that grows from the ground in herbaceous plants or the new stem and/or flower growth that grows on woody plants. Edible shoots of Sachaline In everyday speech, shoots are often confused with stems. Stems, which are a critical component of shoots, provide


The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity has come up with one of many definitions of biotechnology:[1] "Biotechnology has contributed towards the exploitation of biological organisms or biological processes through modern techniques, which could be profitably used in medicine, agriculture, animal husbandry and environmental cloning." Biotechnology


Albinism (from Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology) is a form of hypopigmentary congenital disorder, characterized by a partial (in hypomelanism, also known as hypomelanosis) or total (amelanism or amelanosis) lack of melanin pigment in the eyes, skin and hair (or more rarely the eyes alone). Albinism results from inheritance of recessive alleles. The condition is known to affect mammals (including humans), fish, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. While the most common term for an organi


In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function in some way as a stable whole. The origin of life on Earth and the relationships between its major lineages are controversial. Two main grades may be distinguished, the prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The prokaryotes are generally considered to represent two separate domains, called the Bacteria and Archaea, which are not closer


Muscle (from Latin musculus , diminutive of mus "mouse" [ 1 ] ) is the contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, orsmooth muscles. Their function is to produce force and cause motion. Muscles can cause either locomotion of the organism itself or movement of internal organs. Cardiac and smooth muscle

Green Revolution

The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. This transformation occurred as the result of programs of agricultural research, extension, and infrastructural development, instigated and largely funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, along with the Ford Foundation and other major agencies. [1] The Green Revolution in agriculture helped food production to keep pace with worldwide popula


Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, which is the product of four billion years of evolution. Evolution and meaning Biodiversity is a neologism and portmanteau word, from biology and diversity. The Scienc


Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart . All arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary and umbilical arteries , carry oxygenated blood. The circulatory system is extremely important for sustaining life. Its proper functioning is responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products, maintenance of optimum pH, and the mobility of the elements, proteins and cells of the immune system. In develope


A neuron (pronounced /ˈnjʊərɒn/ N(Y)OOR -on , also known as a neurone or nerve cell ) is an excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signaling. Neurons are the core components of the brain, the vertebrate spinal cord, the invertebrate ventral nerve cord, and the peripheral nerves. A number of specialized types of neurons exist: sensory neurons respond to touch, sound, light and numerous other stimuli affecting cells of


A hernia is the protrusion [ 1 ] of an organ or the fascia of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. A hiatal hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm. By far the most common herniae develop in the abdomen, when a weakness in the abdominal wall evolves into a localized hole, or "defect", through whichadipose tissue, or abdominal organs covered with peritoneum, may protrude. Another common hernia inv


The mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and begins digestion by mechanically breaking up the solid food particles into smaller pieces and mixing them with saliva. [ 1 ] The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth. In addition to its primary role as the beginning of the digestive system, in humans the mouth also plays a significant role in communication. While primary aspects of the voice are produced in the throat, the tongu


In vascular plants , the root is the organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil. This is not always the case, however, since a root can also be aerial (that is, growing above the ground) or aerating (that is, growing up above the ground or especially above water). Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either (see rhizome ). So, it is better to define root as a part of a plant body that bears no leaves, and therefore also lacks nodes

Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin of species from a common descent and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication and diversity over time. Someone who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist . To philosopher Kim Sterelny, "the development of evolutionary biology since 1858 is one of the great intellectual achievements of science". Description Evolutionary biology is an interdisciplinary field because it includes


In anatomy, the urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. A hollow [ 1 ] muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Embryologically, the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is supe

Red blood cell

Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate body's principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. Human red blood cells Red blood cells are also known as RBCs' , haematids or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow", with cyte nowadays translated as "cell"). "RBCs" should in fact be referred to as "corpuscles" rather than "cells". Indeed, a 'cell' contains a nuclear element, RBCs

Endocrine glands

Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones , directly into the blood rather than through a duct. The main endocrine glands include the pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus is a neuroendocrine organ. Other organs which are not so well known for their endocrine activity include the stomach, which produces such hormones as ghrelin. Local chemical messengers, not generally considered part of th


Photoinhibition is a reduction in a plant's (or other photosynthetic organism's) capacity for photosynthesis caused by exposure to strong light (above the saturation point). Photoinhibition is not caused by high light per se, but rather absorption of too much light energy compared with the photosynthetic capacity, i.e. any excess energy that the photosystem cannot handle is damaging. Too much light energy affects (photosystem II (P680)) more than photosystem I (PSI), and it has been hyp

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