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Human iron metabolism

Iron is an essential element for most life on Earth, including human beings. The control of this necessary but potentially toxic substance is an important part of many aspects of human health and disease. Hematologists have been especially interested in the system of iron metabolism because iron is essential to red blood cells. In fact, most of the human body's iron is contained in red blood cells' hemoglobin, and iron-deficiency is the most common cause of anemia. Understanding this sy


In biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many bacteria, plants, algae, fungi and some protozoans. [ 1 ] A chief difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores have very little stored food resources compared with seeds. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium by the sporophyte. Onc


An embryo (irregularly from Greek: ἔµß???? , plural ἔµß??a , lit. "that which grows," from en- "in" + bryein "to swell, be full"; the proper Latinate form would be embryum ) is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination. In humans, it is called an embryo from the moment of implantation until the end of the 8th week, whereafter it is instead called a fetus. Development 6 week old e


Bones are rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They function to move, support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue. Because bones come in a variety of shapes and have a complex internal and externalstructure they are lightweight, yet strong and hard, in addition to fulfilling their many other functions. One of the types of tissue that makes up bone is the min


The human skull shapes the head and face, protects the brain, and houses and protects special sense organs for taste, smell, hearing, vision, and balance. It is constructed from 22 bones, 21 of which are locked together by immovable joints, to form a structure of great strength. The bony framework of the head is called the skull , and it is subdivided into 2 parts, namely: Cranial bones The eight bones of the cranium support, surround and protect the brain within the cranial cavity. They form t


A bacterium (plural: bacteria) is a unicellular microorganism. Typically a few micrometres in length, individual bacteria have a wide-range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods to spirals. Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, [1] seawater, and deep in the Earth's crust. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approx

Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction ( MI ) or acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ), commonly known as a heart attack , is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood su

Nervous system

The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous system of vertebrates (such as humans) contains the brain, spinal cord, and retina. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons called ganglia, and nerves connecting th


Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways which break down molecules into smaller units and release energy.[1] In catabolism, large molecules such as polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins are broken down into smaller units such as monosaccharides, fatty acids, nucleotides and amino acids, respectively. As molecules such as polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids are made from long chains of these small monomer units, the large molecules are called polymers. Cells use the mon


Botany Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem Botany is the scientific study of plant life. As a branch of biology, it is also called plant science(s) , phytology , or plant biology . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study plants, algae, and fungi including: structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, and chemical properties and evolutionary relationships between the different groups. The study of plants and botany began with


Physically a nose is an organ on the face. Anatomically, a nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration in conjunction with the mouth. Behind the nose is the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses . Behind the nasal cavity, air next passes through the pharynx , shared with the digestive system, and then into the rest of the respiratory system. In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face; on most other mammals, it is on th


Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant . The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes, the nodes hold buds which grow into one or more leaves , inflorescence (flowers), cones or other stems etc. The internodes act as spaces that distance one node from another. The term shoots is often confused with stems; shoots generally refer to new fresh plant growth and does include stems but a


In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum ) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. To enable incubation the egg is usually kept within a favourable temperature range as it nourishes and protects the growing embryo. When the embryo is adequately developed it breaks out of the egg in the process of hatching. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth with which to crack or pip the eggshell or covering. Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other develo


A blood cell is a cell of any type normally found in blood. In mammals, these fall into three general categories: red blood cells — Erythrocytes white blood cells — Leukocytes platelets — Thrombocytes Together, these three kinds of blood cells sum up for a total 45% of blood tissue by volume (and the remaining 55% is plasma). [ 1 ] This is called the hematocrit and can be determined by centrifuge or flow cytometry. Types Red blood cells Red blood cells are primarily for carrying oxygen and some


An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. The word is derived from Latin, meaning egg or egg cell. Both animals and embryophytes have ova. The term ovule is used for the young ovum of an animal, as well as the plant structure that carries the female gametophyte and egg cell and develops into a seed after fertilization. In lower plants and algae, the ovum is also often called oospher. A human ovum The process of fertilizing an ovum (Top to bottom) For other uses, see


A poster with twelve species of flowers or clusters of flowers of different families A flower , sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to mediate the union of male sperm with female ovum in order to produce seeds. The process begins with pollination, is followed by fertilization, leading to the formation and dispersal of the seeds. For t


In biology , a skeleton is a rigid framework that provides protection and structure in many types of animal , particularly those of the phylum Chordata and of the superphylum Ecdysozoa . Exoskeletons are external, as is typical of many invertebrates ; they enclose the soft tissues and organs of the body. Exoskeletons may undergo periodic moulting as the animal grows. Endoskeletons are internal, as is typical of many vertebrates ; they are usually surrounded by skin and musculature, though they


Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of the genus Plasmodium . It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas (22 countries), Asia, and Africa. Each year, there are more than 250 million cases of malaria, [ 1 ] killing between one and three million people, the majority of whom are young children in sub-Saharan Africa. [ 2 ] Ninety percent of malaria-related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is commonly ass


The central nervous system ( CNS ) is the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish. It contains the majority of the nervous system and consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Some classifications also include the retina and the cranial nerves in the CNS. Together with the peri

Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selective barrier, within or around a cell. It consist of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that may constitute close to 50% of membrane content. [ 1 ] The cellular membranes should not be confused with isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as mucous and basement membranes. Function Membranes in cells typically define enclosed spaces or compartments in which cells may maintain a chemical

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