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In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used, such as based on similarity of DNA or morphology. Presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species into subspecies. Biologists' working definition A usable defini


ertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata , chordates with backbones and spinal columns. About 58,000 species of vertebrates have been currently described. [ 2 ] Vertebrata is the largest subphylum of chordates, and contains many familiar groups of large land animals. Vertebrates are the animals from the groups ofjawless fishes, bony fishes, sharks and rays, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. Extant vertebrates range in size from the carp species Paedocypris , at as little as 7.


A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. The group is also referred to as polypodiophyta, or polypodiopsida when treated as a subdivision of tracheophyta (vascular plants). The study of ferns and other pteridophytes is called pteridology, and one who studies ferns and other pteridophytes is called a pteridologist. The term "pteridophyte" has traditionally been used to describe all seedless vascul


The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis. This system may be seen strictly as a blood distribution network, but some consider the circulatory system as composed of the cardiovascular system , which distributes blood, [ 1 ] and the lymphatic system , [ 2 ] which distributes


Urolithiasis (from Greek oûron , "urine" and lithos , "stone") is the condition where urinary calculi are formed [ 1 ] in the urinary tract . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] The term kidney stone (or "renal calculus") is sometimes used to refer to urolithiasis in any part of the urinary tract , however it is more properly reserved for stones that are actually in the collecting duct of the kidney itself. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] The term nephrolithiasis can be used to describe the condition of having kidney stones, [ 7 ]


A mycorrhiza (Greek for fungus roots coined by Frank, 1885 [ 1 ] ; typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas ) is a symbiotic (occasionally weakly pathogenic) association between a fungus and the roots of a plant. [ 2 ] In a mycorrhizal association, the fungus may colonize the roots of a host plant, either intracellularly or extracellularly. They are an important part of soil life. This mutualistic association provides the fungus with relatively constant and direct access to


Carbohydrates (from 'hydrates of carbon') or saccharides (Greek sά??a??? , sákcharon, meaning "sugar") are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (eg: starch, glycogen) and structural components (eg: cellulose in plants, chitin and cartilage in animals). Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilizat


Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa . Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. Animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms for sustenance. Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explos


Anabolism (from Greek ana , "upward", and ballein , "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units. [ 1 ] These reactions require energy. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular, organ or organism level is as 'anabolic' or as 'catabolic', which is the opposite. Anabolism is powered by catabolism, where large molecules are broken down into smaller parts and then used up in respiration. Many anabolic processes


A complete blood count ( CBC ), also known as full blood count ( FBC ) or full blood exam ( FBE ) or blood panel , is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood. A scientist or lab technician performs the requested testing and provides the requesting Medical Professional with the results of the CBC. Alexander Vastem is widely regarded as being the first person to use the complete blood count for clinical purposes. [


In human anatomy, the ureters are muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. In the adult, the ureters are usually 25–30 cm (10–12 in) long and ~3-4 mm in diameter. In humans, the ureters arise from the renal pelvis on the medial aspect of each kidney before descending towards the bladder on the front of the psoas major muscle. The ureters cross the pelvic brim near the bifurcation of the iliac arteries (which they run over). This "pelviureteric junction" is a com


A mycorrhiza (Greek for fungus roots; typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic (occasionally weakly pathogenic) association between a fungus and the roots of a plant.[1] In a mycorrhizal association the fungus may colonize the roots of a host plant either intracellularly or extracellularly. This mutualistic association provides the fungus with relatively constant and direct access to mono- or dimeric carbohydrates, such as glucose and sucrose produced by the

Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin of species from a common descent and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication and diversity over time. Someone who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist . To philosopher Kim Sterelny, "the development of evolutionary biology since 1858 is one of the great intellectual achievements of science". Description Evolutionary biology is an interdisciplinary field because it includes

Urinary bladder

In anatomy, the urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. A hollow [ 1 ] muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Embryologically, the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is supe


A cotyledon (pronounced /ˌkɒtəl.ˈiːdən/ ; "seed leaf" from Greek: ??t???dώ? kotylēdōn, from ??tύ?? kotýlē "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant. Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants (angiosperms). Species with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous

About Biology

Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli , tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: ßί??, bio , "life"; and ?ό???, logos , "knowledge") is the study of life. It is a field of empirical science that examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living things both past and present. It classifies and describes the various forms of organisms, how organisms function, how species come into existence, and the inte


Eyes are organs that detect light, and send electrical impulses along the optic nerve to the visual and other areas of the brain. Complex optical systems with resolving power have come in ten fundamentally different forms, and 96% of animal species possess a complex optical system. [ 1 ] Image-resolving eyes are present in cnidaria,molluscs, chordates, annelids and arthropods. [ 2 ] The simplest "eyes", such as those in unicellular organisms, do nothing but detect whether the surroundings are l


A hernia is the protrusion [ 1 ] of an organ or the fascia of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. A hiatal hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm. By far the most common herniae develop in the abdomen, when a weakness in the abdominal wall evolves into a localized hole, or "defect", through which adipose tissue, or abdominal organs covered with peritoneum, may protrude. Another common hernia in

Cell Division

Your body is composed of more than a billion cells. Cells are continually dying, and new cells are continually being formed. An identical copy of your hereditary material is found in the nucleus of each and every somatic cell . A somatic cell is any cell in the body except for the reproductive cells in the reproductive system. This genetic blueprint is organized into 46 chapters or parts known as chromosomes. It is estimated that, on average, each chromosome contains between one and two thousan


The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrate animals with important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system. [ 1 ] In humans, it is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve in case of hemorrhagic shock, especially in animals like horses (not in humans), while recycling iron. [ 2 ] It synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes, from blood and lymph node circulation, antibody-coated bacteria along

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