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In human anatomy, the groin areas are the two creases torso with the legs, [ 1 ] on either side of the pubic area. [ 2 ] A pulled groin muscle usually refers to a painful injury sustained by straining the hip adduction muscles. [ 3 ] at the junction of the The term is sometimes used as a euphemism for sex organs since the names of the sex organs are taboo words in some cultures. For vascular surgeons the groin is the preferred site for incisions to enter a catheter into the vascular system.


A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of patterns of development (morphogenesis) in animals, fungi and plants. Homeodomain A homeobox is about 180 base pairs long. It encodes a protein domain (the homeodomain) which when expressed (e.g. as protein) can bind DNA. Homeobox genes encode transcription factors which typically switch on cascades of other genes. The homeodomain binds DNA in a specific manner. However, the specificity of a single homeodomai


A nostril (or naris , pl. nares ) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. In birds and mammals, they contain branched bones or cartilages called turbinates , whose function is to warm air on inhalation and remove moisture on exhalation. Fish do not breathe through their noses, but they do have two small holes used for smelling which may be called nostrils. The Procellariiformes are distinguished from other birds by having tubular exte


The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation Vein skeleton of a leaf In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. For this purpose, a leaf is typically flat (laminar) and thin, to expose the cells containing chloroplast (chlorenchyma tissue, a type of parenchyma) to light over a broad area, and to allow light to penetrate fully into the tissues. Leaves are also the sites in most plants where transpiration and guttation take pl

Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction ( MI ) or acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ), commonly known as a heart attack , is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood su


In biology and genetics, the germline of a mature or developing individual is the line (sequence) ofgerm cells that have genetic material that may be passed to a child. For example, gametes such as the sperm or the egg, are part of the germline. So are the cells that divide to produce the gametes, called gametocytes, the cells that produce those, called gametogonia, and all the way back to the zygote, the cell from which the individual developed. Cells that are not in the germline are called so


Cladistics , from the ancient Greek ??άd?? , klados , "branch", is the hierarchical classification of species based on phylogeny or evolutionary ancestry. The term phylogenetics is often used synonymously with cladistics . Cladistics is distinguished from other taxonomic systems because it focuses on the evolutionary relationships of species rather than on morphological similarities, which may be convergent, and because it places heavy emphasis on objective, quantitative analysis. Cladisti


A larva (Latin; plural larvae ) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians , or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. Larva is Latin for "ghost." The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form ( e.g. caterpillars and butterflies), and a larva often has unique structures and larval organs that do not occur in the adult form. A larva's diet


Amphibians (class Amphibia, from Amphi- meaning "on both sides" and -bios meaning "life"), such as frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians, are ectothermic (or cold-blooded) animals that metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form, either to an adult air-breathing form, or to a paedomorph that retains some juvenile characteristics. Proteidae (mudpuppies and waterdogs) are good examples of paedomorphic species. Though amphibians typically have four limbs, the caecilians are notabl

Cell structure

What is a cell? The word cell comes from the Latin word "cella", meaning "small room", and it was first coined by a microscopist observing the structure of cork. The cell is the basic unit of all living things, and all organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are so basic and critical to the study of life, in fact, that they are often referred to as "the building blocks of life". Organisms - bacteria, amoebae and yeasts, for example - may consist of as few as one cell, while a typical

Respiratory system

The respiratory system' s function is to allow oxygen exchange through all parts of the body. The space between the alveoli and the capillaries , the anatomy or structure of the exchange system, and the precise physiological uses of the exchanged gases vary depending on organism. In humans and other mammals, for example, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by di


Anabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.[1] These reactions require energy. One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular, organ or organism level is as 'anabolic' or as 'catabolic', which is the opposite. Anabolism is powered by catabolism, where large molecules are broken down into smaller parts and then used up in respiration. Many anabolic processes are powered by adenosine triphosphate (ATP).[2] Anabolic


In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. For this purpose, a leaf is typically flat (laminar) and thin, to expose the cells containing chloroplast to light over a broad area, and to allow light to penetrate fully into the tissues. Leaves are also the sites in most plants where transpiration and guttation take place. Leaves can store food and water, and are modified in some plants for other purposes. The comparable structures of ferns are correctly referre


In vertebrates, mucus is a slippery secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes. It is a viscous colloid containing antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozyme), proteins such as lactoferrin, [ 1 ] glycoproteins known as mucins that are produced by goblet cells in the mucous membranes and submucosal glands, immunoglobulins , and inorganic salts. This mucus serves to protect epithelial cells in the respiratory , gastrointestinal , urogenital , visual, and auditory systems in mammals ; the epi


Anemia (AmE) or anæmia/anaemia (BrE), from the Greek ( Ἀ?a?µίa )(an-haîma) meaning "without blood", is a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. This results in a reduced ability of blood to transfer oxygen to the tissues, causing tissue hypoxia. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. Hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells) has to be present to ensure adequa


Insects (Class Insecta ) are arthropods, having a hard exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae. They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and include approximately 2,200 species of praying mantis, 5,000 dragonfly, 20,000 grasshopper, 82,000 true bug, 120,000 fly, 110,000 bee, wasp, ant and sawfly, 170,000 butterfly and moth, and 360,000 beetle species described to date. The number of extant species i


The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system. Ovaries in females are homologous to testes in males, in that they are both gonads and endocrine glands. Human anatomy Ovaries are oval shaped and, in the human, measure approximately 3 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm (about the size of a Greek olive). The ovary (for a given side) is located in the lateral wall of the pelvis in a region called the ovarian fossa. The fossa usually l


Albinism (from Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology) is a form of hypopigmentary congenital disorder, characterized by a partial (in hypomelanism, also known as hypomelanosis) or total (amelanism or amelanosis) lack of melanin pigment in the eyes, skin and hair (or more rarely the eyes alone). Albinism results from inheritance of recessive alleles. The condition is known to affect mammals (including humans), fish, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. While the most common term for an organi


Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Some insects, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, Cnidarians, echinoderms and tunicates undergo metamorphosis, which is usually accompanied by a change of habitat or behavior. Scientific usage of the term is exclusive, and is not applied to general aspects of cell grow


Anthocyanins (from Greek: ἀ??ό? (anthos) = flower + ??a?ό? (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized by organisms of the plant kingdom and bacteria, and have been observed to occur in all tissues of higher plants, providing color in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Anthocyanins (from Greek: ἀ??ό? (anthos) = flower + ??a?ό? (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flav

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