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A thrombus (Greek ??όµß??), or blood clot , is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. It is achieved via the aggregation of platelets that form a platelet plug, and the activation of the humoral coagulation system (i.e. clotting factors). A thrombus is normal in cases of injury, but pathologic in instances of thrombosis. Pathophysiology Specifically, a thrombus is the inappropriate activation of the hemostatic process in an uninjured or slightly injured vessel. A th


Microbiology is the study of microorganisms , which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. [1] This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes such as bacteria and certain algae. Viruses, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. [2] Microbiology is a broad term which includes many branches like virology, mycology, parasitology and others. A person who specializes in the area of microbiology is called a microbiologist. Although much


Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the most commonly studied species in this genus. Agrobacterium is well known for its ability to transfer DNA between itself and plants, and for this reason it has become an important tool for plant improvement by genetic engineering. The Agrobacterium genus is quite heterogeneous. Recent taxonomic studies have reclassified all of the Agrobacterium species


In a vascular plant, the stele is the central part of the root or stem containing the vascular tissue and occasionally a pith. The concept of the stele was developed in the late nineteenth century by French botanists P. E. L. van Tieghem and H. Doultion as a model for understanding the relationship between the shoot and root, and for discussing the evolution of vascular plant morphology. Now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, plant molecular biologists are coming to understand the g


Bile or gall is a bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the process of digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In many species, bile is stored in the gallbladder between meals and upon eating is discharged into the duodenum. In the medical theories prevalent in the West from Classical Antiquity up to the Middle Ages, the body's health depended on the equilibrium between four "humors" or vital fluids: blood, phlegm, " ye


The ear is the organ that detects sound. The vertebrate ear shows a common biology from fish to humans, with variations in structure according to order and species. It not only acts as a receiver for sound, but also plays a major role in the sense of balance and body position. The ear is part of the auditory system. The word "ear" may be used correctly to describe the entire organ or just the visible portion. In most animals, the visible ear is a flap of tissue that is also called the pinna and


A cotyledon (pronounced /ˌkɒtəl.ˈiːdən/ ; "seed leaf" from Greek: ??t???dώ? kotylēdōn, from ??tύ?? kotýlē "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant. Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants (angiosperms). Species with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous

Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls and histologic foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium . Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. The cells that comprise cardiac muscle are called cardiomyocytes and are sometimes seen as an intermediate between other types of muscle in terms of appearance, structure, metabolism, excitation-coupling and mechanism of contraction. Cardiac muscle shares

Plant hormones

Plant hormones , also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) or phytohormones, are chemicals that regulate a plant's growth. According to a standard animal definition, hormones are signal molecules produced at specific locations, that occur in very low concentrations, and cause altered processes in target cells at other locations. Unlike animals, plants lack specific hormone-producing tissues or organs. Plant hormones are often not transported to other parts of the plant and production is


Diabetes mellitus ( IPA : /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz/ or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ , /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ ), often referred to simply as diabetes (Ancient Greek: d?aßήt?? “to pass through [urine]”), is a syndrome of disordered metabolism, usually due to a combination of hereditary and environmental causes, resulting in abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). [2] Blood glucose levels are controlled


In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function in some way as a stable whole. The origin of life on Earth and the relationships between its major lineages are controversial. Two main grades may be distinguished, the prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The prokaryotes are generally considered to represent two separate domains, called the Bacteria and Archaea, which are not closer


Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Metabolism is usually divided into two categories. Catabolism breaks down organic matter, for example to harvest energy incellular respiration. Anabolism uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized in


Zoology Branches of Zoology Anthrozoology Apiology Arachnology Cetology Entomology Ethology Herpetology Ichthyology Malacology Mammalogy Myrmecology Neuroethology Ornithology Paleozoology Primatology History pre-Darwin post-Darwin This box: view • talk • edit Zoology (from Greek: ?ῴ??, zoion , "animal"; and ?ό???, logos , "knowledge") is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. Name The pronunciation of "zoology" is /zoʊˈɑləʤɪ/ , ho


Lipids are a broad group of naturally occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides , diglycerides , phospholipids , and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules. Lipids may be broadly defined as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structur


Two alpinists Acclimatization is the process of an organism adjusting to chronic change in its environment, often involving temperature, moisture, food, often relating to seasonal climate changes. (In laboratory conditions, this process is controlled to one variable change only and is termed "Acclimation"). Acclimatization usually occurs in a short time, and within one organism's lifetime (compare adaptation). This may be a discrete occurrence or may instead represent part of a periodic cyc

Bacterial conjugation

Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact.[1] Discovered in 1946 by Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum,[2] conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer—as are transformation and transduction—although these mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact.[3] Bacterial conjugation is often incorrectly regarded as the bacterial equivalent of sexual reproduction or mating. It is not actually sexual, as it does not involve


In anatomy, the urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. A hollow [ 1 ] muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Embryologically, the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is supe


The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous system of vertebrates (such as humans) contains the brain, spinal cord, and retina. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons called ganglia , and nerves connecting t


In biology, a species is: a taxonomic rank (the basic rank of biological classification) or a unit at that rank (in which case the plural is "species". This is sometimes abbreviated: "spec." or "sp." singular , or "spp." plural ). There are many definitions of what kind of unit a species is (or should be). A common definition is that of a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring, and separated from other such groups with which interbreeding does not (normally)


Gonimbrasia belina is a species of moth found in much of southern Africa, whose large edible caterpillar, the mopani or mopane worm, is an important source of protein for millions of Southern Africans. Vernacular names The mopane worm is so called in English because it is usually found on the mopane tree, Colophospermum mopane . Other vernacular names for the caterpillars include: Botswana iKalanga: mashonja Setswana: phane South Africa Sepedi: masonja (colloq) [1] Tshivenda: mashonzha Xitsonga

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