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Cell structure

What is a cell? The word cell comes from the Latin word "cella", meaning "small room", and it was first coined by a microscopist observing the structure of cork. The cell is the basic unit of all living things, and all organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are so basic and critical to the study of life, in fact, that they are often referred to as "the building blocks of life". Organisms - bacteria, amoebae and yeasts, for example - may consist of as few as one cell, while a typical


Population ecology is a major sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. [1] The older term, autecology (from Greek: aὐt?, auto , "self"; ?ί???, oikos, "household"; and ?ό???, logos, "knowledge") refers to the roughly same field of study, coming from the division of ecology into autecology—the study of individual species in relation to the environment—and synecology—the study of groups of orga

Cell Division

Your body is composed of more than a billion cells. Cells are continually dying, and new cells are continually being formed. An identical copy of your hereditary material is found in the nucleus of each and every somatic cell . A somatic cell is any cell in the body except for the reproductive cells in the reproductive system. This genetic blueprint is organized into 46 chapters or parts known as chromosomes. It is estimated that, on average, each chromosome contains between one and two thousan


The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plants. The flowering plants are distinguished from other seed plants by a series of apomorphies, or derived characteristics. Angiosperm derived characteristics Flowers The flowers of flowering plants are the most remarkable feature distinguishing them from other seed plants. Flowers aided angiosperms by enabling a wider range of evolu

Cell signaling

Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes. By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated effectively and, theor

Plant hormones

Plant hormones , also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) or phytohormones, are chemicals that regulate a plant's growth. According to a standard animal definition, hormones are signal molecules produced at specific locations, that occur in very low concentrations, and cause altered processes in target cells at other locations. Unlike animals, plants lack specific hormone-producing tissues or organs. Plant hormones are often not transported to other parts of the plant and production is


Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Some insects, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, Cnidarians, echinoderms and tunicates undergo metamorphosis, which is usually accompanied by a change of habitat or behavior. Scientific usage of the term is exclusive, and is not applied to general aspects of cell grow

Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls and histologic foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium . Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. The cells that comprise cardiac muscle are called cardiomyocytes and are sometimes seen as an intermediate between other types of muscle in terms of appearance, structure, metabolism, excitation-coupling and mechanism of contraction. Cardiac muscle shares


In biology, a species is: a taxonomic rank (the basic rank of biological classification) or a unit at that rank (in which case the plural is "species". This is sometimes abbreviated: "spec." or "sp." singular , or "spp." plural ). There are many definitions of what kind of unit a species is (or should be). A common definition is that of a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring, and separated from other such groups with which interbreeding does not (normally)

Red blood cell

Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate body's principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. Human red blood cells Red blood cells are also known as RBCs' , haematids or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow", with cyte nowadays translated as "cell"). "RBCs" should in fact be referred to as "corpuscles" rather than "cells". Indeed, a 'cell' contains a nuclear element, RBCs


In anatomy, the intestine (or bowel ) is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the cecum and colon. Structure and function The structure and function can be described both as gross anatomy and at a microscopic level. The i


In medicine, dialysis (from Greek "dialusis", meaning dissolution, "dia", meaning through, and "lysis", meaning loosening) is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal replacement therapy) due to renal failure. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly but temporarily, lost their kidney function (acute renal failure) or for quite stable patients who have permanently lost their kidney function (stage 5 chronic kidney disease). When he


Cell disruption is a method or process for releasing biological molecules from inside a cell. Choice of disruption method The production of biologically-interesting molecules using cloning and culturing methods allows the study and manufacture of relevant molecules.Except for excreted molecules, cells producing molecules of interest must be disrupted. This page discusses various methods. Major factors Several factors must be considered. Volume or sample size of cells to be disrupted If only a f


Example of Taking a Cutting [1] Plant cutting, also known as striking/cloning, is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. The cutting produces new roots, stems, or both, and thus becomes a new plant independent of the parent. Technique Typically, striking is a simple process in which a small amount of the parent plant is re


In medicine, dialysis (from Greek "dialusis", meaning dissolution, "dia", meaning through, and "lusis", meaning loosening) is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal replacement therapy) due to renal failure. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly but temporarily, lost their kidney function (acute renal failure) or for quite stable patients who have permanently lost their kidney function (stage 5 chronic kidney disease). When he


Plasmodium is a genus of parasitic protists. Infection by these organisms is known as malaria. The genus Plasmodium was created in 1885 by Marchiafava and Celli. Currently over 200 species of this genus are recognized and new species continue to be described. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Of the over 200 known species of Plasmodium , at least 11 species infect humans. Other species infect animals, including monkeys, rodents, birds, and reptiles. The parasite always has two hosts in its life cycle: a mosquito vec


The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or "phospholipid bilayer") is a semipermeable lipid bilayer found in all cells.[1] It contains a wide variety of biological molecules, primarily proteins and lipids, which are involved in a vast array of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion channel conductance and cell signaling. The plasma membrane also serves as the attachment point for both the intracellular cytoskeleton and, if present, the cell wall. Function The cell


Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze ( i.e. , increase the rates of) chemical reactions. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Almost all enzymes are proteins. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, t

Bacterial conjugation

Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact.[1] Discovered in 1946 by Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum,[2] conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer—as are transformation and transduction—although these mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact.[3] Bacterial conjugation is often incorrectly regarded as the bacterial equivalent of sexual reproduction or mating. It is not actually sexual, as it does not involve


In molecular biology and genetics, a blot is a method of transferring proteins, DNA or RNA, onto a carrier (for example, a nitrocellulose PVDF or nylon membrane). In many instances, this is done after a gel electrophoresis, transferring the molecules from the gel onto the blotting membrane, and other times adding the samples directly onto the membrane. After the blotting, the transferred proteins, DNA or RNA are then visualized by one or more different methods: colorant staining (for example, s

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