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CHROMOSOMES

A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. The word chromosome comes from the Greek ??ῶµa ( chroma , colour) and sῶµa ( soma , body) due to their property of being very strongly stained by particular dyes. Diagram of a replicated and c

HEART

The heart is a myogenic muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system (including all vertebrates), that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. The term cardiac (as in cardiology) means "related to the heart" and comes from the Greek ?a?d?ά, kardia , for "heart." The vertebrate heart is composed of cardiac muscle, which is an involuntary striated muscle tissue found only within this organ, and connective tissue. The

Species

In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used, such as based on similarity of DNA or morphology. Presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species into subspecies. Biologists' working definition A usable defini

OUR ENVIRONMENT

OVERVIEW: Our world is in danger. Pollution of the air, water, and land is rampant, overwhelming the delicate balance of nature of the planet. Many species of plants and animals face extinction at an alarming rate. Until all of the peoples of the world are educated and informed, this destruction will continue. PURPOSE: Because children are the leaders of tomorrow, educating them today to become responsible users and protectors of their environment, will result in a more positive future for our

Germline

In biology and genetics, the germline of a mature or developing individual is the line (sequence) ofgerm cells that have genetic material that may be passed to a child. For example, gametes such as the sperm or the egg, are part of the germline. So are the cells that divide to produce the gametes, called gametocytes, the cells that produce those, called gametogonia, and all the way back to the zygote, the cell from which the individual developed. Cells that are not in the germline are called so

EMBRYO

An embryo (irregularly from Greek: ἔµß???? , plural ἔµß??a , lit. "that which grows," from en- "in" + bryein "to swell, be full"; the proper Latinate form would be embryum ) is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination. In humans, it is called an embryo from the moment of implantation until the end of the 8th week, whereafter it is instead called a fetus. Development 6 week old e

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. Its main use is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the Krebs Cycle to be oxidized for energy production. In chemical structure, acetyl-CoA is the thioester between coenzyme A (a thiol) and acetic acid (an acyl group carrier). Acetyl-CoA is produced during the second step of aerobic cellular respiration, pyruvate decarboxylation, which occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. Acetyl-CoA the

Hybrid

In biology and specifically genetics, hybrid has several meanings, all referring to the offspring of sexual reproduction. [ 1 ] In general usage, hybrid is synonymous with heterozygous: any offspring resulting from the mating of two distinctly homozygous individuals a genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same gene a structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have differing structure in at least one chromosome, as a result of structural abnormalities a numerical hyb

LIVER

The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals; it has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion. The liver is necessary for survival; there is currently no way to compensate for the absence of liver function. This organ plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma proteinsynthesis, horm

BLOOD CELL

A blood cell is a cell of any type normally found in blood. In mammals, these fall into three general categories: red blood cells — Erythrocytes white blood cells — Leukocytes platelets — Thrombocytes Together, these three kinds of blood cells sum up for a total 45% of blood tissue by volume (and the remaining 55% is plasma). [ 1 ] This is called the hematocrit and can be determined by centrifuge or flow cytometry. Types Red blood cells Red blood cells are primarily for carrying oxygen and some

Meristem

A meristem is the tissue in all plants consisting of undifferentiated cells ( meristematic cells ) and found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. The term “meristem” was first used by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli (1817-1891) from his book “Beiträge zur Wissenschaftlichen Botanik” in 1858. It is derived from the Greek word “merizein”, meaning to divide in recognition of its inherent function. Differentiated plant cells generally cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Theref

ARTERIES

Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart . All arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary and umbilical arteries , carry oxygenated blood. The circulatory system is extremely important for sustaining life. Its proper functioning is responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products, maintenance of optimum pH, and the mobility of the elements, proteins and cells of the immune system. In develope

Neoteny

Neoteny (pronounced /niːˈɒtɨniː/ ), also called juvenilization , is the retention, by adults in a species, of traits previously seen only in juveniles (a kind ofpedomorphosis), and is a subject studied in the field of developmental biology. In neoteny, the physiological (or somatic) development of an animal or organism is slowed or delayed (fallaciously, seen as a dilation of biological time). Ultimately this process results in the retention, in the adults of a species,

NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous system of vertebrates (such as humans) contains the brain, spinal cord, and retina. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons called ganglia , and nerves connecting t

INSECTS

Insects (Class Insecta ) are arthropods, having a hard exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae. They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and include approximately 2,200 species of praying mantis, 5,000 dragonfly, 20,000 grasshopper, 82,000 true bug, 120,000 fly, 110,000 bee, wasp, ant and sawfly, 170,000 butterfly and moth, and 360,000 beetle species described to date. The number of extant species i

CLADISTICS

Cladistics , from the ancient Greek ??άd?? , klados , "branch", is the hierarchical classification of species based on phylogeny or evolutionary ancestry. The term phylogenetics is often used synonymously with cladistics . Cladistics is distinguished from other taxonomic systems because it focuses on the evolutionary relationships of species rather than on morphological similarities, which may be convergent, and because it places heavy emphasis on objective, quantitative analysis. Cladisti

TISSUE

Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. Hence, a tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and

Meristem

A meristem is the tissue in all plants consisting of undifferentiated cells ( meristematic cells ) and found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. The term “meristem” was first used by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli (1817-1891) in his book “Beiträge zur Wissenschaftlichen Botanik” in 1858. [ citation needed ] It is derived from the Greek word “merizein”, meaning to divide in recognition of its inherent function. Differentiated plant cells generally cannot divide or produce cells of a diff

OVARY

The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system. Ovaries in females are homologous to testes in males, in that they are both gonads and endocrine glands. Human anatomy Ovaries are oval shaped and, in the human, measure approximately 3 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm (about the size of a Greek olive). The ovary (for a given side) is located in the lateral wall of the pelvis in a region called the ovarian fossa. The fossa usually l

SPORE

In biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many bacteria, plants, algae, fungi and some protozoans. [ 1 ] A chief difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores have very little stored food resources compared with seeds. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium by the sporophyte. Onc







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